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Chapter 7 Orientation and Training. Training as an Investment.

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Chapter 7 Orientation and Training

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2002 mcgraw hill ryerson ltd

Chapter 7

Orientation and Training

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


2002 mcgraw hill ryerson ltd

Training as an Investment

Training is an investment in human capital. Managers must understand that large investments in physical plant, modern machinery, and new technology cannot be fully realized if there is no equivalent investment in human capital. The acquisition of new skills is not only vital to improving quality and productivity, but it is also essential if companies want to meet global competition.

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


2002 mcgraw hill ryerson ltd

Job Demands

The Balance Between New Employee Capabilities and Job Demands

New Employee Capabilities

Orientation

Training

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


2002 mcgraw hill ryerson ltd

Socialization

Socialization is the continuing process by which an employee begins to understand and accept the values, norms, and beliefs held by others in the organization.

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


2002 mcgraw hill ryerson ltd

Stages of Socialization

  • Anticipatory socialization

  • Encounter

  • Change and acquisition

  • Orientation programs

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


2002 mcgraw hill ryerson ltd

Orientation

  • Reduce employee turnover

  • Reduce errors and save time

  • Develop clear job and organizational expectations

  • Improve job performance

  • Attain acceptable job performance levels faster

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


2002 mcgraw hill ryerson ltd

Orientation

  • Increase organizational stability

  • Reduce employee anxiety

  • Reduce grievances

  • Reduce instances of corrective discipline

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


2002 mcgraw hill ryerson ltd

Contents of Orientation Programs

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


2002 mcgraw hill ryerson ltd

Contents of Orientation Programs

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


2002 mcgraw hill ryerson ltd

Contents of Orientation Programs

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


2002 mcgraw hill ryerson ltd

Contents of Orientation Programs

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


2002 mcgraw hill ryerson ltd

ROPES Program

  • Provides realistic information. Orientation should provide realistic information about the job environment and the organization

  • Gives general support and reassurance. It means telling new employees that the stress they experience during the first days or week is normal

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


2002 mcgraw hill ryerson ltd

ROPES Program

  • Demonstrates coping skills. The orientation program should include stress training

  • Identifies specific potential stressors. The program should identify specific stressors, explain their impact, and explain an appropriate coping behaviour

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


2002 mcgraw hill ryerson ltd

Orientation Pitfalls

  • Overwhelmed with too much information to absorb in a short time

  • Given only menial tasks that discourage job interest and company loyalty

  • Overload with forms to fill out and manuals to read

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


2002 mcgraw hill ryerson ltd

Orientation Pitfalls

  • Pushed into the job with a sketchy orientation under the mistaken philosophy that “trial by fire” is the best orientation

  • Forced to fill in the gaps between a broad orientation by the human resource department and a narrow orientation at the department level

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


2002 mcgraw hill ryerson ltd

Evaluating Orientation Effectiveness

  • Reactions from new employees

  • Effects of socialization on job attitudes and roles

  • Degree to which the program is economical

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


2002 mcgraw hill ryerson ltd

Training

Training refers to a planned effort by an organization to facilitate the learning of job related behaviour of its employees. The term behaviour is used broadly to include any knowledge and skill acquired by an employee through practice.

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


2002 mcgraw hill ryerson ltd

Program

Content

Needs

Assessment

Training Objectives

ActualProgram

LearningPrinciples

EvaluationCriteria

Evaluation

A Training System Approach: Preliminary Steps in Preparing a Training Program

Skills KnowledgeAbility ofWorkers

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


2002 mcgraw hill ryerson ltd

Needs Assessment

Needs assessment diagnoses present problems and environmental challenges that can be met through training, or the future challenges to be met through long-term development.

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


2002 mcgraw hill ryerson ltd

Training Objectives

  • The desired behaviour

  • The conditions under which it is to occur

  • The acceptable performance criteria

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


2002 mcgraw hill ryerson ltd

Learning Principles

Learning principles are guidelines to the ways in which people learn most effectively.

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


2002 mcgraw hill ryerson ltd

Learning Principles

  • Participation improves motivation and apparently engages more senses that help reinforce the learning process

  • Repetition apparently etches a pattern into our memory

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


2002 mcgraw hill ryerson ltd

Learning Principles

  • RelevanceLearning is helped when the material to be learned is meaningful. For example, trainers usually explain the overall purpose of a job to trainees before explaining specific tasks. This explanation allows the worker to see the relevance of each task and the importance of following the given procedures.

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


2002 mcgraw hill ryerson ltd

Learning Principles

  • TransferenceTransference is the application of training to actual job situations. The closer the demands of the training program match the demands of the job, the faster a person learns to master the job. For example, pilots are usually trained in flight simulators because the simulators very closely resemble the actual cockpit and flight characteristics of the plane. The close match between the simulator and the plane allows the trainee to transfer quickly the learning in the simulator to actual flight conditions.

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


2002 mcgraw hill ryerson ltd

Learning Principles

  • FeedbackFeedback gives learners information on their progress. With feedback, motivated learners can adjust their behaviour to achieve the quickest possible learning curve. Without feedback, learners cannot gauge their progress and may become discouraged. Test grades are feedback on the study habits of test takers, for example.

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


2002 mcgraw hill ryerson ltd

Criteria for Selecting a Training Technique

  • Cost-effectiveness

  • Desired program content

  • Appropriateness of the facilities

  • Trainee preferences and capabilities

  • Trainer preferences and capabilities

  • Learning principles

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


2002 mcgraw hill ryerson ltd

Training Techniques

  • On-the-job-training

  • Job rotation

  • Apprenticeships and coaching

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


2002 mcgraw hill ryerson ltd

Training Techniques

  • Off-the-job-training

  • Lecture and video presentations

  • Vestibule training

  • Role-playing

  • Case study

  • Simulation

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


2002 mcgraw hill ryerson ltd

Training Techniques

  • Off-the-job-training

  • Self-study and programmed learning

  • Laboratory training

  • Computer-based training

  • Virtual reality (VR)

  • Internet or web-based training, virtual education, and e-learning

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


2002 mcgraw hill ryerson ltd

Orientation Evaluation Criteria

  • Reaction

  • Knowledge

  • Attitudes

  • Behaviour

  • Organizational results

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


Steps in the evaluation of training

Evaluation Criteria

Pre-test

Transfer to the Job

Follow-up Studies

Post-test

Steps in the Evaluation of Training

Trained or Developed Workers

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.


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