Why does a structure like H – C = C – H fail to make sense chemically?
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Why does a structure like H – C = C – H fail to make sense chemically? Differentiate between hydrogen bonding and van der Waals bonding. If you were a pharmaceutical researcher, why would you want to learn the three-dimensional shapes of naturally occurring ligand (signal) molecules?

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  • Why does a structure like H – C = C – H fail to make sense chemically?

  • Differentiate between hydrogen bonding and van der Waals bonding.

  • If you were a pharmaceutical researcher, why would you want to learn the three-dimensional shapes of naturally occurring ligand (signal) molecules?

  • What does it mean that the electrons of an atom are excited?

  • Differentiate between dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis.


  • List the three types of isomers we learned and give an example of each.

  • Differentiate between polymers and monomers.

  • Define functional groups.

  • Describe how the properties of water contribute to the upward movement of water in a tree (more than two properties apply).

  • How can freezing of water crack boulders?

  • Explain how carbonic acid can act as a buffer.



  • When a dog pants, holding its mouth open, what property of water allows loss of heat and subsequent reduction of the dog’s internal temperature?

  • Describe what happens with water when it dissociates.

  • Compared with a basic solution at pH 9, the same volume of an acidic solution at pH 4 has ____ times as many hydrogen ions.

  • Differentiate between the dissociation of strong acids and weak acids. Chose which one would be a good buffer and explain why.



  • Write the chemical formula of a monosaccharide with three carbons.

  • Maltose forms by joining two alpha-glucose molecules together by dehydration synthesis. What is the formula of maltose?

  • Differentiate between the structure and function of starches and cellulose.

  • Describe how carbohydrates can be involved in energy storing or in providing energy.



  • What is this polymer? carbons.

  • Name its monomers.

  • Name three specific learned examples.

  • List two functions of this molecule.


  • How do phospholipids polarity help them to perform their functions?

  • Compare the structure and function of simple lipids and phospholipids.

  • Draw the orientation of phospholipids in water and in oil.

  • Why cannot we properly digest trans fats?

  • How many water molecules are released when simple fats form? Why?

  • Why are sterols considered lipids, although they have no similarity in structure to other types of lipids?


  • What is this polymer? functions?

  • What are its monomers?

  • List its four functions.

  • Determine the polarity of this molecule.


  • What is this molecule? functions?

  • What main group of macromolecules that this belong to?

  • List three of its functions.

  • Determine the polarity of this molecule



  • What is this monomer? to?

  • What is the polymer that forms from this?

  • How many different kinds of this monomer do we have in our body?

  • What is the bond that binds these monomers together?

  • Determine the polarity of this molecule.


  • Name this molecule. to?

  • List two examples of this that we learned.

  • Name a function of this molecule.

  • Name the reaction that breaks this molecule down to its monomers.


  • What is this molecule? to?

  • What are its monomers?

  • What is the bond that combines the monomers?

  • List the levels of its structure.

  • Name the bonds that form each level of structure.

  • List 5 functions of this molecule.


  • Differentiate between the competitive inhibitor and allosteric inhibitor

  • Name and explain three ways in which enzyme activity can be regulated

  • Explain how the primary structure of proteins determine all of their other levels of structures

  • Why does a denatured protein no longer function properly?

  • What parts of the polypeptide participate in forming the secondary and tertiary structures of proteins.

  • Name three protein functions and describe how the protein structure fit to perform this function.


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