Hawaii 2020
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Hawaii: 2020. Presented by Alex Waegel for Team Cake B. Current Energy Production and Use. Most of the energy for both electricity and transportation comes from fossil fuels, primarily petroleum. Hawaii generates 11.0 TWh electricity each year (30 TWh of fossil fuels are burned)

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Hawaii: 2020

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Hawaii 2020

Hawaii: 2020

Presented by Alex Waegelfor Team Cake B


Current energy production and use

Current Energy Production and Use

  • Most of the energy for both electricity and transportation comes from fossil fuels, primarily petroleum.

  • Hawaii generates 11.0 TWh electricity each year (30 TWh of fossil fuels are burned)

    • 9.0 TWh comes from petroleum

    • 1.5 TWh comes from coal

    • 0.5 TWh comes from a mix of renewables (Geothermal, hydroelectric, wind)

  • Hawaii uses 17.4 TWh of energy on personal vehicle transportation

    • This all comes from petroleum


Cost of current energy system

Cost of Current Energy System

  • Hawaiians spend a total of $5.4 billion to meet their energy needs

    • $0.35/kWh for electricity, $3.8 billion total

    • $0.088/kWh for gasoline (~$3/gal), $1.4 billion total

  • These costs are prohibitively high compared to the continental U.S.

    • This makes all renewable options cost competetive


Co2 emissions in current system

CO2 Emissions in Current System

  • Total Emissions = 28.7 million tons CO2

    • 18.5 million tons for electrical generation

      • 15 million tons from petroleum

      • 3.5 million tons from coal

    • 10.2 million tons for transportation

      • All from petroleum


Energy production in 2020

Energy Production in 2020

  • Due to the high cost of conventional energy on Hawaii and the abundance of renewable energy, a great deal of renewable energy sources are added

    • 1,850 MW of Solar PV

    • 1,000 MW of Wind Turbines (Offshore, Floating)

    • 500 MW of Geothermal

    • 100 MW of Wave / Tidal


Production and cost of new capacity

Production and Cost of New Capacity

  • Solar

    • Size: 1,850 MW

    • Initial Cost: $6.5 billion

    • Generates: 2.7 TWh / year

    • Estimated Cost of Elec: $0.10 / kWh

    • Estimated Annual Cost: $270 million

  • Wind

    • Size: 1,000 MW

    • Initial Cost: $1.0 billion

    • Generates: 4.2 TWh / year

    • Estimated Cost of Elec: $0.06 / kWh

    • Estimated Annual Cost: $252 million


Production and cost of new capacity1

Production and Cost of New Capacity

  • Geothermal

    • Size: 500 MW

    • Initial Cost: $2.3 billion

    • Generates: 3.9 TWh / year

    • Estimated Cost of Elec: $0.03 / kWh

    • Estimated Annual Cost: $117 million

  • Wave / Tidal

    • Size: 100 MW

    • Initial Cost: $0.25 billion

    • Generates: 0.45 TWh / year

    • Estimated Cost of Elec: $0.05 / kWh

    • Estimated Annual Cost: $23 million


Two 2020 scenarios

Two 2020 Scenarios

  • Given the inability of grids to handle > 20% intermittent electrical generation the wind will be primarily devoted to meeting transportation needs.

    • Scenario 1: Hydrogen Generation via Electrolysis

    • Scenario 2: Battery Charging of Electric Vehicles

  • These lead to different energy breakdowns and costs


Hydrogen generation via electrolysis

Hydrogen Generation Via Electrolysis

  • Wind Generates 4.2 TWh / year

    • This becomes 110 million kg of H2

    • The efficiency of creating the H2 and using it in the FCV is 40.5%

    • This displaces 59% of the petroleum used in the transport sector for personal vehicles

    • The hydrogen is estimated to cost $4.50/kg

  • Still Rely on 7.1 TWh of petroleum to supply the remainder of the personal transportation needs


Additional cost of hydrogen system

Additional Cost of Hydrogen System

  • Assumptions

    • Will use on site electrolyzers

    • Will store hydrogen as compressed gas

    • There will be 45 stations converted to carry H2

    • Very low cost of $30,000 / fuel cell for vehicle

    • 720,000 vehicles will be FCV

  • Costs

    • Electrolyzer: $2.53 million / station

    • Compresser: $2.00 million / station

    • Storage Tank: $9.00 million / station

    • Total Costs for all Stations: $609 million

    • Total Cost for FCVs: $21.6 BILLION


Co2 emissions in hydrogen system

CO2 Emissions in Hydrogen System

  • Total Emissions = 9.7 million tons CO2

    • 5.5 million tons for electrical generation

      • 2.0 million tons from petroleum

      • 3.5 million tons from coal

    • 4.2 million tons for transportation

      • All from petroleum


Battery charging of electric vehicles

Battery Charging of Electric Vehicles

  • Wind Generates 4.2 TWh / year

    • Due to the much higher overall efficiency (81%) of the cycle of charging and discharging the batteries, this amount of wind energy is more than enough to displace all of the petroleum needs for transport

    • 3.87 TWh goes to battery charging

    • 0.35 TWh goes to the grid


Additional cost of electric vehicle system

Additional Cost of Electric Vehicle System

  • Costing this scenario presents difficulties due to uncertain costs of the vehicles

  • Just looking at the cost of battery systems for the vehicles, which we assume have twice the capacity of the Chevy Volt (32kWh)

  • Cost for 1.2 million cars (total number in HI)

  • $300/kWh cost for batteries (future cost)

  • $11.5 billion for all vehicles


Co2 emissions in electric car system

CO2 Emissions in Electric Car System

  • Total Emissions = 4.9 million tons CO2

    • 4.9 million tons for electrical generation

      • 1.4 million tons from petroleum

      • 3.5 million tons from coal

    • 0.0 million tons for transportation

      • All transportation energy comes from wind


Final costs and emissions

Final Costs and Emissions


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Renewable energy sources can significantly reduce Hawaii’s dependence on foreign oil without excessive cost

  • Hydrogen from renewables has potential, but requires significant capital investment in infrastructure for statewide implementation

  • Hawaii’s high cost of electricity makes it the ideal place for the application hydrogen and other renewable alternatives as they are all comparatively economical.


Conclusions1

Conclusions

  • Of the two choices for 2020, using wind power to charge electric vehicles superior

    • Costs less

    • Reduces emission to a greater extent

    • Due to being on islands, trip distances are by default relatively short, and will not exceed the range of the electric vehicles

    • Allows for a zero emission transportation system

    • Using the intermittent power source to charge vehicles keeps the share of intermittent sources providing electrical power to a minimum


Conclusions2

Conclusions

  • Cons to Electric Vehicle System

    • Relies on development of a smart grid

    • This would be an advantageous development for other reasons, but represents a significant infrastructure improvement and potentially high costs


Thank you the end

Thank You! The End!

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