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Association of Enterprise Architects International Committee on Enterprise Architecture Standards. Quality and Principle: What Makes a Good Architecture. Haiping Luo Enterprise Architecture Management Guide (EAMG) Project Manager a|EA EA Standards Committee. Overview.

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Quality and principle what makes a good architecture l.jpg

Association of Enterprise Architects

International Committee on Enterprise Architecture Standards

Quality and Principle:What Makes a Good Architecture

Haiping Luo

Enterprise Architecture Management Guide (EAMG) Project Manager

a|EA EA Standards Committee


Overview l.jpg

Overview

  • Observations of architectures

  • Does an enterprise architecture need quality standards?

  • What are the desirable quality aspects for an enterprise architecture?

  • What makes an enterprise architecture high quality?

  • Sample EA principles

  • A categorized collection of EA principles

  • See impacts of EA principles through reviewing real world cases

  • An approach to help implement EA principles and improve architectural qualities

  • Caveats when applying EA principles


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Observations of Building Architectures

Can you recognize these buildings or structures? Are they good architectures?

How could you say they are good or bad?

3


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Observations of Enterprise Architectures

4

How about these enterprise architectures? Are they good or bad? How could you say one way or another?


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The Question…

What Makes a Good Architecture?

5


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The Affecting Factors…

Many things affect how to evaluate an architecture:

From whose perspective?

For what purpose?

Under what context?

In what environment?

In what time frame?

Under what constraints?

Given these varying factors,

Can we define objectively

the quality standards

for enterprise architectures?

6


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The Commonality…Quality Standards for Enterprise Architectures

Suitability

Integrity

Fosterage

Strength

Economy

Sustainability

Homeostasis

Harmony

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EA Quality Standard Definitions - 1

Suitability

The pattern by which elements are interrelated or arranged fits the type and purpose of the enterprise in focus.

The functionalities of the structure support the functions and activities of the enterprise effectively.

Integrity

Elements have compatible interfaces and exchange media to coordinate and interact with each other.

Elements support and supplement each other so the enterprise whole is better than the sum of individual elements.

The structure conforms to architectural principles.

Fosterage

The architecture enables and supports the growth and continuous improvements of the enterprise and its elements.

The architecture encourages and utilizes opportunity seeking and innovations.

Strength

The architecture provides sufficient support to the pursuit of the enterprise’s mission.

The structure can endure a normal range of shocks and impacts from internal or external sources.

The architecture has self-discipline and self-adjustment ability to respond to changes.

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EA Quality Standard Definitions - 2

Economy

The architecture optimizes enterprise-wide resource use (including time and space use) that is affected by the architecture.

The architecture optimizes the enterprise gain that can be obtained through the support of the architecture.

The architecture minimizes the cost to maintain and improve the architecture.

Sustainability

The architecture remains vital and capable over the life of the enterprise.

The changes designed for and implemented in the architecture can persist as intended.

Homeostasis

The architecture has embedded-adjustment mechanisms to return to balance, equilibrium, or homeostasis timely, efficiently, and with minimal loss and pain.

Harmony

The architecture is acceptable by its elements.

9


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Again, the Affecting Factors…

Given that these factors vary across enterprises and change over time:

Perspective

Purpose

Context

Environment

Time frame

Constraints

How can we ever say that

an enterprise’s architecture

has met the quality standards?

10


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The Truth is…

No, we can’t. There is no absolute point that an enterprise’s architecture can be said having met all or any quality standard on that list.

But, there is hope…

We can always, and should only, evaluate an architecture relatively.

An enterprise’s architecture can be compared to its:

previous state

potentials

best-practice peers

to evaluate improvements and to identify opportunities towards reaching the EA quality standards.

Improving the quality of an enterprise’s architecture

is a journey, a never-ending one.

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How EA Principles Can Help

Definitions:

A Principle is a fundamental law, rule or requirement that leads to desirable results persistently.

An Enterprise Architecture Principle is a fundamental requirement that brings one or more aspects of quality to enterprise architectures persistently.

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Sample EA Principles

Avoid Sole Dependency

Establish Balance of Power

Streamline Value

Standardize Commonality

Maintain Redundancy, not Duplicates

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A Collection of EA Principles

As part of the a|EA work of developing a Enterprise Architecture Management Guide, a collection of EA principles is being assembled at: http://www.aeablogs.org/cgi-bin/gforum/gforum.cgi?post=205#205.

This collection groups EA principles by enterprise management areas so people can find applicable architecture principles for the specific management area they focus on.

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A Generic Enterprise Management Category Tree

Enterprise Management

Five Management

Areas

Strategic

Management

Business

Management

Resource

Management

Risk

Management

Electronic

Management

Financial

Mgmt

Management

Domains

Digitalization

Mgmt

Goal & Strategy

Mgmt

Line of Business

Mgmt

Security

Mgmt

Asset &

Infrastructure

Mgmt

Automation

Mgmt

Organization

Mgmt

Business

Continuity

Mgmt

Partner

Relationship

Mgmt

Execution &

Operation

Mgmt

Material Mgmt

Mobilization

Mgmt

Legality and

Compliance

Mgmt

Customer

Relationship

Mgmt

Human Resource

Mgmt

Virtualization

Mgmt

Result

Mgmt

Technology

Mgmt

Fluctuation and

Uncertainty

Mgmt

Electronic

Infrastructure

Mgmt

Opportunity &

Innovation Mgmt

Information

Mgmt

Cross-area/domain Interoperation*

* Each area/domain obtains inputs from all other areas/domains and outputs to all other areas/domains. See the EA Management Guide Integrity Matrix for the method.

Last updated: 4/11/09


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Sample Architectural Principles by Enterprise Management Area

Strategic

Management

Business

Management

Resource

Management

Risk

Management

Electronic

Management

  • Streamline enterprise value for maximal customer outcomes

  • Establish agility

  • Pursue stakeholder alignment

  • Nurture opportunities

  • Maintain lean operations

  • Maintain strategic directions

  • Establish balance of power

  • Ensure total accountability

  • Optimize decision chain

  • Provide right resources rightly

  • Maximize reusability

  • Ensure individualized responsibility for every resource

  • Live within means

  • Avoid sole dependency

  • Invest in prevention

  • Trust but verify

  • Drive right behavior

  • Minimize own weaknesses

  • Enhance interoperability

  • Maximize ease of use / operation

  • Standardize commonality

  • Maintain scalability


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Real World Cases and EA Principles

Case / System / Situation

EA Principles

EA Quality Standards

  • A check-and- balance government system

  • Huge bonus for failing banks’ executives

  • Sub-prime mortgage crisis

  • Global warming

  • The only expert of a mission-critical system is leaving the company this Friday.

  • Duplicate and scattered data

  • Federal deficit

  • Scrutinize Assumptions

  • Maintain redundancy, not duplicate

  • Live within own means

  • Establish balance of power

  • Ensure total accountability

  • Drive right behavior

  • Avoid sole dependency

  • Suitability

  • Integrity

  • Fosterage

  • Strength

  • Economy

  • Sustainability

  • Homeostasis

  • Harmony

Note: This is a game for the audience to match the cases / systems / situations with relevant principles. The arrows between principles and quality standards indicates which quality standards the principle would improve.

Please use lines to link a case with one or more relevant principles.

If a case is likely in conformation with a principle, use a solid line to connect the two;

If a case is likely in violation of a principle, use a dashed line to connect the two.


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An Approach to Help Implement EA Principles and Improve Architectural Qualities

Basic Logic:

decomposed

into

implemented

in

Activity

requires

EA Quality

EA Principle

Requirement

Element

Basic Tool: EA Repository –

Use EA repositories to documentand relate EA quality standards, EA principles, and requirements; and to monitor and manage compliance and conformation.

A Sample Repository Metamodel Supporting the Implementation of EA Principles:

EA Quality

Standard

supports

implements

implements

EA Principle

Requirement

Compliancy

complies through

Process

Project

Application

Network

Equipment


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Possible Matrix Reports onArchitectural Quality Improvements

Baseline Architecture Quality Report

(Indirect relationship: 4 levels away)

Target Architecture Quality Report

(Indirect relationship: 4 levels away)

Suitability

Integrity

Strength

Economy

Suitability

Integrity

Strength

Economy

Compliancy

Compliancy


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Caveats When Applying EA Principles

Proper and thorough decomposition, accountable association to activities and objects are key to implement principles.

Implementing architectural principles is a balancing art since the principles may conflict with each other.

Viewer’s perspective impacts the interpretation of principles and the measures of implementation results.

Things changes constantly, EA improvements must be continuously.

Audience’s Turn: Other inputs / thoughts?

20


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