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Novel Design of a Portable Heat Energy Storage Device Adopting a Phase Change Material for CHP and Solar Energy Applications

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Novel Design of a Portable Heat Energy Storage Device Adopting a Phase Change Material for CHP and Solar Energy Applications. K. TRAPANI. BSc. Renewable Energy Final Year Dissertation. Project Supervisor: Dr. Dean Millar. Concept:

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Novel Design of a Portable Heat Energy Storage Device Adopting a Phase Change Material for CHP and Solar Energy Applications

K. TRAPANI

BSc. Renewable Energy Final Year Dissertation

Project Supervisor: Dr. Dean Millar

introduction

Concept:

  • Extraction of waste heat from an automotive micro-CHP engine using a portable thermal storage device (Millar & Huang, 2009)
  • Specific design of the portable thermal energy storage adopting phase change materials (PCMs)

INTRODUCTION

requirements of the device

REQUIREMENTS OF THE DEVICE

PORTABILITY

Compact

Light

Modular

Stackable

High thermal energy storage

Efficient heat transfer

FLEXIBLE THERMAL CAPACITY

MAXIMISED PERFORMANCE

device design

Modular unit:

Mass = 15kg

Dimensions = 20cm x 35cm x 18cm

DEVICE DESIGN

Model unit (1/5th scale):

Mass = 3kg

Dimensions = 12cm x 35cm x 6cm

SOLIDWORKS DESIGN OF A 1/5th SCALE MODEL

phase change materials pcms

PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS (PCMs)

TEMPERATURE

PHASE CHANGE

PCMs – materials which exhibit a phase change (from one state to another)

GAS

Enthalpy of System

LIQUID

SOLID

ENTHALPY

selection of device s pcm

SELECTION OF DEVICE’S PCM

GAS-LIQUID

  • Not corrosive
  • Low or no undercooling
  • Chemically and thermally ostable

SOLID-GAS

  • Greater phase change oenthalpy

PHASE TRANSITIONS

SOLID-LIQUID

Relatively high heat of fusion

Paraffin Wax

SOLID-SOLID

Stable heating and cooling cycle

Economical and abundant

properties of the device s pcm

Governing equations:

Q = mc∆ϴ

Q = mL

PROPERTIES OF THE DEVICE’S PCM

Sensible heating

Latent heating

Where Q = Pt

simulation

Boundary conditions:

  • Mass flow rate of heat transfer medium 0.108kg/s at 333.2K
  • Fluid outlet subject to normal environmental conditions (293.2K and 101325Pa)
  • Initial conditions:
  • Same as normal environmental conditions
  • Simulation software had to be modelled to account for the phase change material.
  • Assumptions:
  • Paraffin wax is homogenous and isotropic
  • Heat is transferred only by conduction
  • Simulation is time dependent

SIMULATION

Hence the paraffin wax’s thermal properties had to be designed as a series of sensible heating stages.

Cs = 3412J/kgKfor T<328K

Csl = 98587J/kgKfor 328K<T<330K

Cl = 4466J/kgKfor T>330K

  • Results (for a model scale device):
  • Thermal heat capacity – 381.7kJ
testing of 1 5 th scale prototype

“CHARGING” of Device:

“DISCHARGING” of Device:

TESTING OF 1/5th SCALE PROTOTYPE

Heat supplied thermal store = 595.8kJ

η = 64.1%

Heat retrieved from thermal store = 247.0kJ

η = 64.7%

Overall efficiency = 41.5%

device integration

DEVICE INTEGRATION

The device is primarily designed to be integrated with a central domestic heating system.

applications for the device

APPLICATIONS FOR THE DEVICE

The main heat sources for the device are:

Micro – CHP (automotive vehicle engines)

Surplus solar thermal heat

Micro-CHP

Solar

  • Requires a portable heat transfer medium
  • Integration with an automotive vehicle
  • Stationary application
  • Integration with the domestic central heating system

Yu, C., & Chau, K.T. (2009) Review on thermal energy storage with phase change. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13, 318 – 345.

  • Two primary heat sources:
  • Exhaust gas
  • Engine cooling process

Retrieved from duaemanus.blogspot.com

overview of a micro chp integrated device

Increase mass implies:

  • a larger CAPEX
  • greater operating costs
  • enhanced revenue

OVERVIEW OF A MICRO-CHP INTEGRATED DEVICE

conclusion

CONCLUSION

Main application for device is in micro-CHP

Economically device is currently not very feasible for displacing the heating load from a gas boiler

Optimisation of the design (improving PCM to total device mass ratio)

Simulation testing for practical maximum efficiency

Consequent optimisation of the practical model

Further development of device fittings is crucial to the installation of the device

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THANK YOU

ANY QUESTIONS?

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