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HUT. China - Japan - India Jaana Pukkila. Cultural Differences. Values: right/wrong, truth ... Religions, philosophies -> making sense of the world, legitimising values: Social norms, attitudes, customs Dos & Don’ts Organisations Communication Etc.

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Hut

HUT

China - Japan - India

Jaana Pukkila


Cultural differences

Cultural Differences

  • Values: right/wrong, truth ...

  • Religions, philosophies

    -> making sense of the world, legitimising values:

  • Social norms, attitudes, customs

  • Dos & Don’ts

    Organisations

    Communication

    Etc.


Hut

Some Asian Religions, Philosophies

  • Buddhism

  • Taoism

  • Confucianism

  • Japan: Shinto

  • India: Hinduism


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East Asian cultural sphere

China

Koreas

Japan

Vietnam

Overseas Chinese


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Confucianism

  • Leading philosophy in East Asia

  • Confucius 551-479 BCE

  • Best way to organise society, governance ????

  • Goal: maintaining harmony and order


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Main points:

  • Harmony

  • Hierarchy

  • Etiquette & Tradition

  • Family & Groups

  • Study & Learning

  • China: balinghou, jiulinghou, Japan: “space aliens”


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Hierarchy:

Age

Seniority

Rank & title

Education

No equal relationships

One should only do things / utter words appropriate to one’s rank in family/society (Confucius)


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Hierarchy:

  • Who (rank) is talking? ”the Truth”

  • Boss is boss

  • In negotiations: top negotiators do the talking

  • High power distance cultures / Low power distance cultures


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Groups

  • Group more important than an individual

  • Remember your place

  • Role & duties

  • Family

  • China: family, guanxi friends, outsiders

    ---> not know-how but know-who, companies do not do business - people do,

    need of a go-between -> in Japan a must (shokaisha)

    Chinese guanxi = Japanese ningen kankei

    How to build/maintain guanxi: extra curricular activities...


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Hierarchy & Groups

Face

  • Group passport Honour

  • Maintain/give/lose face

  • Keeping face: harmonious behaviour, communication

  • Reciprocity principle


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Communication

  • Direct vs. Indirect

  • Non-hierarchical vs. hierarchical

  • Meaning of ”yes”?

  • Can I say ”no”?

    TIPS:

  • Use open-ended questions

  • Coffee-break talk

  • Read non-verbal communication


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Example: Japanese communication:

  • Tatemae: polite front

  • Honne: true feelings, opinions

  • Haragei (“belly language”): non verbal communication


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Non verbal communication

  • Facial expressions & gestures

  • Tone of voice & silence

  • Eye contact

  • Use of space & touching


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Virtual Communication

  • Same rules: direct / indirect

    TIPS:

  • Establish yourself

  • Tell exactly what you want - “salami vs. ham”

  • 2-3 bullets/email - prioritising

  • c.c. the boss

  • Telcos: clear agenda & stick to it - no surprises


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Chinese (Japanese) negotiations:

  • There is no word for negotiation in trad. Chinese, the modern tan pan = discussion + making judgement. Tan pan has not the connotations of bargaining, conflict resolution and final agreement implicit in the term negotiation. Tan pan is an ongoing dialogue

  • Chinese view: the Western approach to negotiation is like signing an elaborate prenuptial agreement, a contract that could doom the relationship to failure before it starts.

  • Negotiation rituals

  • Don’t lose your patience


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Organisation and Management Style: Hierarchies

  • Flat hierarchies vs. steep hierarchies

    In a hierarchical organisation:

  • Boss is boss - status authority

  • Little delegation

  • Few matrices

  • One can not have two bosses

  • Top down decisions: “Information is power”


Japanese style decision making

Japanese style decision making

  • Ringi

  • Middle-up

  • Group decisions

  • Ringi-sho

  • Nemawashi

  • Slow decision making - fast implementation


Project work

Project work

  • Active - Proactive ?

    Kick-off meetings:

  • Clear agenda - stick to it

  • Discussing the goals - atomism vs. holism

  • Delegation of tasks and responsibilities

  • Timetables and follow-up

    In general:

  • Plan carefully: GI-GO

  • Prioritising


India

India

  • Cultural Diversity:

    • geography

    • religions (Hindu 83%, Muslim 11%, Christian 2,6%, Sikh 1,9% etc)

    • caste system

    • languages (24 official languages in the Constitution)

    • social strata, exposure to outside world

  • British Rule (Raj) (1763 -15.8.1947 Independence)

    --> no one culture

    --> no one business culture (e.g. bureaucrats, traditional industries, high tech e.g. ICT…)

    --> In business: general polite manners suffice


Some indian values

Some Indian values

  • Hierarchy

  • Family

  • Networks

  • Religion

  • (Caste)


Negotiations

Negotiations

  • Hierarchy and bureaucracy

  • Aim the top

  • Top-down decision making

  • Win-lose / win-win

  • (Internationally) seasoned negotiators

  • Contracts: mostly literal interpretation -> still: follow-up

  • Handling conflicts: negotiate


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