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Issues of Scale Using C o l o r. Scale Issues. What is map scale?. The scale of a map is the relationship between a unit of length on the map and a unit of length on the ground. Map Scales. Verbal scale “One cm represents 100 km” Bar scales (graphical)

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Issues of ScaleUsing Color



What is map scale
What is map scale?

The scale of a map is the relationship between a unit of length on the map and a unit of length on the ground.


Map scales
Map Scales

Verbal scale

“One cm represents 100 km”

Bar scales (graphical)

Representative fraction (RF) 1:24,000


Representative fraction
Representative Fraction

A 0.025 inch line on a1:24,000scale map represents50ft (600 in) on the ground

A 0.025 inch line on a1:200,000scale map represents almost417ft on the ground


Scale Issues

Beware of scale statements

1:200 (“one to two hundred”) does this mean

unit-to-unit

(one inch on the map equals 200 inches on the ground)

or

not unit-to-unit

(one inch on the map equals 200 feet on the ground)

For this course,

all scale statements will be assumed unit-to-unit


Scale Issues

large scale vs. small scaleTo a geographer:1:2,000,000 is small scale1:200 is large scale


Importance of scale
Importance of Scale

Scale of data plays an important role, and frequently causes problems

All spatial phenomena have scale dependent behavior/properties

Be aware of:

Data source scale

Mixing data from different source scales

Appropriateness of output scale


Scale issues1
Scale Issues

Data from different sources and scales can vary widely

1:100,000 scale data from USGS DLG


Scale issues2
Scale Issues

1:1,000,000 scale data from DCW (DMA)


Scale issues3
Scale Issues

1:2,000,000 scale data from USGS DLG


Using c o l o r
Using Color


Displaying data colors
Displaying data: colors

What can color do?

Label

Measure

Represent or imitate reality

Beautify

From Tufte 1990

Wabern, 1983


Displaying data c o l o r s
Displaying data: colors

Primary home heating fuel. U.S. Department of Commerce

From Tufte 1990


Displaying data colors1
Displaying data: colors

Primary home heating fuel. U.S. Department of Commerce

From Tufte 1990


Displaying data colors2
Displaying data: colors

From Tufte 1997


Displaying data colors3
Displaying data: colors

From Tufte 1997


Displaying data c o l o r s1
Displaying data: colors

From Tufte 1997




Color blindness2
Color Blindness

http://jfly.iam.u-tokyo.ac.jp/color/


Color blindness3
Color Blindness

http://jfly.iam.u-tokyo.ac.jp/color/


Color blindness4
Color Blindness

http://jfly.iam.u-tokyo.ac.jp/color/


Color blindness5
Color Blindness

http://jfly.iam.u-tokyo.ac.jp/color/


Color blindness6
Color Blindness

http://jfly.iam.u-tokyo.ac.jp/color/





Redundant coding1
Redundant Coding

http://jfly.iam.u-tokyo.ac.jp/color/


Redundant coding2
Redundant Coding

http://jfly.iam.u-tokyo.ac.jp/color/



Color schemes1
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html


Color schemes2
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html


Color schemes3
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html


Color schemes4
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html


Color schemes5
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html


Color schemes6
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html


Color schemes7
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html


Color schemes8
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html


Color schemes9
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html


Color schemes10
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html


Color schemes11
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html


Color schemes12
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html


Color schemes13
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html


Color schemes14
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html


Color schemes15
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html


Color schemes16
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html


Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/cab38/ColorBrewer/ColorBrewer.html


Specifying Colors in ArcMap Pennsylvania State University


Homework Pennsylvania State University

Read: “Creating Feature Datasets & Vector Editing” & “Creating and Modifying Tables”

Start working on assignment #4 -- Due April 26.


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