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El presente. Uses of the Present. Express a timeless or habitual action in the present Describe events that last up to the present Express planned events and actions in the future. Uses of the Present.

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uses of the present
Uses of the Present
  • Express a timeless or habitual action in the present
  • Describe events that last up to the present
  • Express planned events and actions in the future
uses of the present1
Uses of the Present

4. Describe actions and situations that have been going on for a certain period of time in the following constructions:

    • hace + length of time + que + verb in present
    • Verb in present + (desde) hace + length of time
  • To ask a question use
    • ¿Cuánto (tiempo) hace que+ verb in the present?
    • ¿Desde hace cuánto tiempo + verb in the present?
uses of the present2
Uses of the Present
  • Describe actions and situations that have been going on since a specific point in time:
      • Verb in present + desde + point in time
    • To ask a question use the following construction:
      • ¿Desde cuándo + verb in the present?
regular verb conjugation
Regular Verb Conjugation

-ar -er -ir .

-o -amos -o -emos -o -imos

-as -áis -es -éis -es -ís

-a -an -e -en -e -en

verbs with irregular yo
Verbs with Irregular Yo
  • caber (to fit)- quepo, cabes, cabe, cabemos, cabéis, caben
  • caer (to fall)- caigo, caes, cae,

caemos, caéis, caen

  • dar (to give)- doy, das, da,

damos, dais, dan

  • hacer (to do or make)- hago, haces, hace,

hacemos, hacéis, hacen

Deshacer (to undo), satisfacer (to satisfy)

verbs with irregular yo1
Verbs with Irregular Yo
  • poner (to put)- pongo, pones, pone,

ponemos, ponéis, ponen

componer (to compose/repair), exponer (to expose),

suponer (to suppose), descomponer (to break),

imponer (to impose), disponer (to dispose),

proponer (to propose)

  • saber (to know a fact/how to do something)

sé, sabes, sabe,

sabemos, sabéis, saben

  • salir (to go out/leave) salgo, sales, sale,

salemos, salís, salen

verbs with irregular yo2
Verbs with Irregular Yo
  • traer (to bring)- traigo, traes, trae,

traemos, traéis, traen

atraer (to attract), contraer (to contract), distraer (to distract)

  • valer (to be worth/cost)- valgo, vales, vale

valemos, valéis, valen

  • ver (to see)- veo, ves, ve

vemos, veis, ven

verbs with irregular yo and stem change
Verbs with Irregular Yo and Stem Change
  • decir (to say/tell)- digo, dices, dice,

decimos, decís, dicen

  • tener (to have)- tengo, tienes, tiene,

tenemos, tenéis, tienen

contener (to contain), entretener (to entertain), obtener (to obtain),

detener (to detain/stop), mantener (to maintian), retener (to retain)

  • venir (to come)- vengo, vienes, viene

venimos, venís, vienen

convenir (to agree/be suitable), intervenir (to intervene),

prevenir (to warn/ prevent)

other irregular verbs
Other Irregular Verbs
  • estar (to be)- estoy, estás, está,

éstamos, estáis, están

  • ir (to go)- voy, vas, va, vamos, vais, van
  • oír (to hear)- oigo, oyes, oye,

oímos, oís, oyen

  • ser (to be)- soy, eres, es, somos, sois, son
stem changing verbs
Stem-changing verbs
  • u to ue

jugar (to play)

juego jugamos

juegas jugáis

juega juegan

stem changing verbs1
Stem-changing Verbs
  • o to ue

dormir (to sleep)

duermo dormimos

duermas dormís

duerma duerman

other o to ue verbs
Other o to ue Verbs

almorzar (to eat lunch) volver (to return)

acostarse (to go to bed) costar (to cost)

demostrar (to demonstrate) encontrar (to find)

mostrar (to show) soñar (to dream)

recordar (to remember) llover (to rain)

oler (to smell) poder (to be able)

resolver (to solve) morir (to die)


oler- to smell

huelo olemos

hueles oléis

huele huelen

stem changing verbs2
Stem-changing Verbs
  • e to ie

querer (to want)

quiero queremos

quieres quieréis

quiere quieren

other e to ie verbs
Other e to ie Verbs

pensar (to think) cerrar (to close)

comenzar (to begin)confesar (to confess)

despertarse (to wake up) empezar (to begin)

nevar (to snow) sentarse (to sit down)

entender (to understand) perder (to lose)

preferir (to prefer) advertir (to notify)

hervir (to boil)

stem changing verbs3
Stem-changing Verbs
  • e to i

servir (to serve)

sirvo servimos

sirves servís

sirve sirven

other e to i verbs
Other e to i Verbs

despedir (to fire) impedir (to prevent)

medir (to measure) reírse (to laugh)

repetir (to repeat) sonreírse (to smile)

vestir(se) (to dress)

pedir (to ask for, request)

despedirse (de) to say good-bye)


reír- to laugh

río reimos

ríes reís

ríe ríen

uir verbs
-uir Verbs
  • -uir verbs add a y after the u.

construir (to build)

construyo construimos

construyes construís

construye construyen

other uir verbs
Other –uir Verbs

atribuir (to attribute) concluir (to conclude)

contribuir (to contribute) destruir (to destroy)

distribuir (to distribute) huir (to flee)

incluir (to include) influir (to influence)

sustituir (to substitute)

iar and uar verbs
-iar and –uar Verbs
  • -iar and –uar verbs have an accent on the i or u.

enviar (to send) continuar (to continue)

envío enviamos continúo continuamos

envías enviáis continúas continuáis

envía envían continúa continúan

other iar and uar verbs
Other –iar and –uar Verbs
  • -iar

confiar (en) (to confide [in])

espiar (to spy) fiarse (de) (to trust)

guiar (to guide) variar (to vary)

resfriarse (to catch a cold)

  • -uar

actuar (to act) graduarse (to graduate)

ger and gir verbs
-ger and –gir Verbs
  • -ger and –gir verbs change g to j in the yo form.

proteger (to protect) exigir (to demand)

protejo protegemos exijo exigimos

proteges protegéis exiges exigís

protege protegen exige exigen

other ger and gir verbs
Other –ger and –gir verbs
  • -ger

coger (to grab, catch) encoger (to correct)

escoger (to choose)

recoger (to gather, pick up)

  • -gir

afligir (to grieve) corregir (to correct)

dirigir (to direct, conduct) elegir (to choose)

fingir (to feign, pretend)

guir verbs
-guir Verbs
  • Verbs that end in -guir change –gu to g in the yo.

seguir (e i)

sigo seguimos

sigues seguís

sigue siguen

other guir verbs
Other –guir Verbs

conseguir (to get, aquire)

distinguir (to distinguish)

extinguir (to extinguish)

perseguir (to pursue)

proseguir (to proceed)

cer verbs
-cer Verbs
  • Verbs that end in a vowel + –cer change to –zco in the yo. (except hacer)

ofrecer (to offer)

ofrezco ofrecemos

ofreces ofrecéis

ofrece ofrecen

other vowel cer verbs
Other vowel + –cer Verbs

aborrecer (to hate) agradecer (to thank)

aparecer (to appear) crecer (to grow)

conocer (to know, be familiar with)

desaparecer (to disappear) establecer (to establish)

merecer (to deserve) nacer (to be born)

obedecer (to obey) parecer (to seem)

permanecer (to remain) pertenecer (to belong)

reconocer (to recognize)

consonant cer verbs
Consonant + –cer Verbs
  • Verbs that end in a consonant + –cer change to –zo in the yo.

vencer (to defeat)

venzo vencemos

vences vencéis

vence vencen

convencer (to convince) ejercer (to exert)

vowel cir verbs
Vowel + -cir Verbs
  • Verbs that end in a vowel + -cir change to

-zco in the yo. (except decir)

producir (to produce)

produzco producimos

produces producís

produce producen

other vowel cir verbs
Other vowel + -cir Verbs

conducir (to drive, conduct)

reducir (to reduce)

traducir (to translate)

present progressive tense
Present Progressive Tense
  • The progressive indicates an action in progress. AKA: it is going on right NOW.
  • Any tense of estar can be used but present and imperfect are the most common.
present progressive tense1
Present Progressive Tense
  • The following verbs can be used in place of estar to form the progressive:
    • These are the most common:seguir(keep on or still doing something), ir(conveys the idea of gradually or little by little), andar (implies going about), continuar(continues …),
    • venir (came/comes), salir (left/leaves), entrar (entered/ enteres), and llegar(arrived/arrives) imply continuation or habitual actions.
present progressive tense the gerund present participle
Present Progressive Tense:the Gerund (present participle)
  • The gerund is formed by adding:
      • -ando to the stem of –ar verbs
      • -iendo to the stem of –er and –ir verbs
  • Note:
    • -ar and –er stem changers don’t change.
    • -ir stem changers change o to uand e to i.
    • -er and –ir verbs with stems ending in a vowel change the i in –iendo to a y.