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Teamwork and Project Management. Karl A. Smith Engineering Education – Purdue University STEM Education Center/ Civil Eng - University of Minnesota [email protected] http://www.ce.umn.edu/~smith Engineers Leadership Institute Minnesota Society for Professional Engineers November 18, 2011.

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Teamwork and project management

Teamwork and Project Management

Karl A. Smith

Engineering Education – Purdue University

STEM Education Center/ Civil Eng - University of Minnesota

[email protected]

http://www.ce.umn.edu/~smith

Engineers Leadership Institute

Minnesota Society for

Professional Engineers

November 18, 2011


Teambuilding and project management perspectives

Teambuilding and Project Management Perspectives

  • Capitalizing on individual differences

  • Leading a team to consensus; the importance of buy-in

  • Expanding a team’s capabilities

  • Perspectives on the role of project manager

  • Key components to project and/or team success

  • Project coordination

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What do you already know about teamwork and project management background knowledge survey

What do you already know about Teamwork and Project Management?[Background Knowledge Survey]

  • What is your experience in teamwork and project management?

    • 1-3: limited experience (1) to very experienced (3)

  • What is your level of familiarity with project management tools and strategies?

    • 1-3: low (1) to high (3)

  • What do you feel are important considerations about teamwork and project management?

  • What are challenges you have faced with teamwork and project management?


What is a project

What is a Project?

  • A project is a combination of human and nonhuman sources pulled together in a temporary organization to achieve a specified purpose. Cleland and Kerzner, 1985

  • A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result. Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK), 2004

  • A project is a sequence of unique, complex, and connected activities that have one goal or purpose and that must be completed by a specific time, within budget, and according to specification. Wysocki, 2011.

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Teamwork and project management

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Teamwork and project management

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Teamwork and project management

The Project Management

Body of Knowledge is the

sum of knowledge within

the profession of project

management

PMBOK

www.pmi.org

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Teamwork and project management

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Project management agile adaptive

Project Management – Agile/Adaptive

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Types of projects

Types of Projects

  • On-going operations – Traditional Project Management – PMBOK

  • Innovation – Adaptive Project Framework – Wysocki

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Teamwork and project management

Types of Projects – Exploitation vs Exploration (March, 1991)

March, J.G. 1991. Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organizational Science, 2, 71-87


Explore exploit

Explore - Exploit

  • James March (1991) Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning

  • Roger Martin (2010) Design of Business – Characteristics of exploration and exploitation, Table 1-1, p. 20

  • Govindarajan and Trimble (2010) The Other Side of Innovation, Key differences between typical planning processes for the Performance Engine and best practices for innovation, Table 4.1, p. 99

  • Scott Page (2010) Understanding Complexity – Lecture 5 Explore Exploit: The Fundamental Trade-Off


Percentage of current work that is project work

Percentage of Current Work that is Project Work

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Number of projects currently working on

Number of Projects Currently Working On

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Distribution between supporting innovation and supporting on going operations

Distribution Between Supporting Innovation and Supporting On-Going Operations

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Percentage of current work that is project work1

Percentage of Current Work that is Project Work

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Number of projects currently working on1

Number of Projects Currently Working On

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Distribution between supporting innovation and supporting on going operations1

Distribution Between Supporting Innovation and Supporting On-Going Operations

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Developing project management expertise

Developing Project Management Expertise

  • What is expertise?

  • What is project management expertise?

  • Why is this important?

  • How to develop expertise?

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Expertise implies

Expertise Implies:

  • a set of cognitive and metacognitive skills

  • an organized body of knowledge that is deep and contextualized

  • an ability to notice patterns of information in a new situation

  • flexibility in retrieving and applying that knowledge to a new problem

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Bransford, Brown & Cocking. 1999. How people learn. National Academy Press.


Expert project managers

Expert Project Managers

  • Take a moment to recall one of your expert project managers

  • Describe him or her briefly

  • Listen as others describe their expert project managers

  • List common characteristics

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Characteristics of expert project managers

Characteristics of Expert Project Managers

  • ?

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Teamwork and project management

What is takes to be a good project manager

--Barry Posner (1987)

Communications (84% of the respondents listed it)

Listening

Persuading

Organizational skills (75%)

Planning

Goal-setting

Analyzing

Team Building Skills (72%)

Empathy

Motivation

Esprit de Corps

Leadership Skills (68%)

Sets Example

Energetic

Vision (big picture)

Delegates

Positive

Coping Skills (59%)

Flexibility

Creativity

Patience

Persistence

Technological Skills (46%)

Experience

Project Knowledge


Acquisition of expertise fitts p posner mi human performance belmont ca brooks cole 1967

Acquisition of ExpertiseFitts P, & Posner MI. Human Performance. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, 1967.

  • Cognition: Learn from instruction or observation what knowledge and actions are appropriate

  • Associative: Practice (with feedback) allowing smooth and accurate performance

  • Automaticity: “Compilation” or performance and associative sequences so that they can be done without large amounts of cognitive resources

“The secret of expertise is that there is no secret. It takes at least 10 years of concentrated effort to develop expertise.” Herbert Simon


Paradox of expertise

Paradox of Expertise

  • The very knowledge we wish to teach others (as well as the knowledge we wish to represent in computer programs) often turns out to be the knowledge we are least able to talk about.

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Teamwork and project management

Teamwork and Project Management Exercise

Project Life Cycle

The engineering method is design under constraints – Wm. Wulf, President, National Academy of Engineering

The engineering method is the use of heuristics to cause the best change in a poorly understood situation within the available resources – Billy Koen, Mechanical Engineering Professor, UT-Austin, author Discussion of the Method

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Design build project

Design-Build Project

  • Teams of 3-4 – randomly assigned

  • Experience entire project life cycle in about 30 minutes

  • Goal is for all teams to meet the specification (design requirement)

  • Attend to both the task and the team work

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Team member roles

Team Member Roles

  • Task Recorder

  • Process Recorder

  • Time Monitor

  • Materials Manager

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Teamwork and project management

Design objective

Design and build a tower at least 25 cm high that can support a stack of textbooks. The tower is built from index cards and office tape.

Design rules

Materials are 100 index cards and one roll of office tape

Cards can be folded but not torn

No piece of tape can be longer than 2 inches

Tower cannot be taped to the floor

Tower must be in one piece, and easily transported in one hand

Time to design and build: 15 minutes

Height is measured from the ground to the lowest corner of the book placed on top

Tower must support book for at least 10 seconds before the measurement is made

Room must be cleaned up before measurements are made.


Teamwork and project management

Group Processing

Plus/Delta Format

Delta (∆)

Things Group Could Improve

Plus (+)

Things That Group Did Well


Teamwork and project management

  • Teamwork & Project Management Heuristics--Examples

    • Identify the weak link and Allocate resources to the weak link

    • Freeze the design--at some stage in the project (when about 75% of the time or resources are used up) the design must be frozen

    • Discuss the process and ask meta-level questions, e.g., What are we doing? Why are we doing it? How does it help?

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Teamwork and project management

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Teamwork and project management

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Teamwork and project management

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Teamwork and project management

Wysocki & Rudd, Figure 2.8, page 47

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What is a project cleland and kerzner 1985 nicholas 1990

What is a project?(Cleland and Kerzner, 1985; Nicholas, 1990)

  • … a combination of human and nonhuman sources pulled together in a temporary organization to achieve a specified purpose.

  • Features

    • Definable purpose with established goals

    • Cost, time and performance requirements

    • Multiple resources across organizational lines

    • One-time activity

    • Element of risk

    • Temporary activity

    • Process with phases/ project life cycle

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Performance cost and time project targets

Performance, Cost, and Time Project Targets

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Teamwork and project management

Project Success: Quadruple Constraint


Successful projects

Successful Projects

  • Take a moment to recall one of your most successful projects

  • Describe it briefly

  • Listen as others describe their successful projects

  • List common characteristics

40


Characteristics

Characteristics

  • ?

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Teamwork and project management

A recent survey of technology projects in the United States by the Project Management Institute reveals some startling percentages. Close to half of the projects started were never finished, 30% were completed but took at least twice as long as expected, some took 5 times as long. Only 10% of the projects were finished on time.


Teamwork and project management

Standish Group Survey of Software Project – 1994 (Lewis, 2000, p. 109)

17% Succeeded

50% Revised

33% Failed


Teamwork and project management

Critical Success Factors and Their Importance for System Implementation (Listed in decreasing order of correlation)

[Pinto (1986), See Smith (2004), p. 67]

1.Project mission. Initial clearly defined goals and general directions.

2.Top management support. Willingness of top management to provide the necessary resources and authority/power for implementation success.

3.Schedule plans. A detailed specification of the individual action steps for system implementation.

4.Client consultation. Communication, consultation, and active listening to all parties impacted by the proposed project.

5.Personnel. Recruitment, selection, and training of the necessary personnel for the implantation project team.

6.Technical tasks. Availability of the required technology and expertise to accomplish the specific technical action steps to bring the project on-line.

7.Client acceptance. The act of "selling" final product to its ultimate intended users.

8.Monitoring and feedback. Timely provision of comprehensive control information at each stage in the implementation process.

9.Communication. The provision of an appropriate network and necessary data to all key actors in the project implementation process.

10.Troubleshooting. Ability to handle unexpected crises and deviations from plan.


Top ten reasons why projects succeed standish group 2000

Top Ten Reasons Why Projects Succeed (Standish Group, 2000)

  • Executive management support

  • User involvement

  • Experienced project manager

  • Clear business objectives

  • Minimized scope

  • Standardized infrastructure

  • Firm basic requirements

  • Formal methodology

  • Reliable estimates

  • Skilled staff

Wysocki & Rudd, p. 34

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Predictors of lowered project success william m hayden

Predictors of Lowered Project SuccessWilliam M. Hayden

  • Unrealistic project work plans

  • Inability to deal early with suspected problem issues

  • Technical complexities not well communicated to team members

  • Conflict between client expectations and the state of deliverables

  • Insufficient involvement on the part of senior management early in the life cycle


Teamwork and project management

  • Session Summary

  • (Minute Paper)

  • Reflect on the session:

  • 1. Most interesting, valuable, useful thing you learned.

  • 2. Things that helped you learn.

  • 3. Comments, suggestions, etc

  • Pace: Too slow 1 . . . . 5 Too fast

  • Relevance: Little 1 . . . 5 Lots

  • Instructional Format: Ugh 1 . . . 5 Ah

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Teamwork and project management

ISE 5101 – Fall 2011 – Session 1

Q4 – Pace: Too slow 1 . . . . 5 Too fast (3.3)

Q5 – Relevance: Little 1 . . . 5 Lots (4.3)

Q6 – Format: Ugh 1 . . . 5 Ah (4.7)

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