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Network Administration PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Network Administration. Procedures Tools Ping SNMP Ethereal Graphs http://www.pcworld.com/news/article/0,aid,113175,00.asp 10 commandments for PC security. Procedures. Failure detection Network card locally or at the switch/router Host monitoring Traffic monitoring Route flapping

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Network Administration

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Network administration l.jpg

Network Administration

  • Procedures

  • Tools

    • Ping

    • SNMP

    • Ethereal

    • Graphs

  • http://www.pcworld.com/news/article/0,aid,113175,00.asp

  • 10 commandments for PC security


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Procedures

  • Failure detection

    • Network card locally or at the switch/router

    • Host monitoring

    • Traffic monitoring

    • Route flapping

    • Intrusion


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Management Levels

  • Performance management

    • Utilization and throughput

  • Fault Management

    • What is broken

  • Configuration management

    • Track connections

  • Accounting management

    • Logging resource use

  • Security management


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Infrastructure

  • Managing entity

    • Human, network manager at the NOC

  • Managed device

    • Switch, router, interface

  • Management Information Base

    • Network management agent

    • Network management protocol (SNMP)


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Monitoring Protocol

  • http://www.snmp.org

  • Network Management Objects

    • MIB object

  • Data Definition language

    • Structure of Management Information (SMI)

  • Protocol (SNMP)

  • Security and Administration capabilities

    • Remote control


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SMI constructs

  • Data types

    • INTEGER-231 to 231-1

    • Integer32 -231 to 231-1

    • Unsigned32unsigned version of above

    • OCTET String16 bit binary or text data

    • OBJECT IDENTIFIERMIB information

    • IPaddress32 bit internet address

    • Counter3232 bit counter, wrap around

    • Counter6464 bit counter, wrap around

    • Gauge32non wrapping counter

    • TimeTicks1/100ths of a second since an event

    • Opaquestring


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MIB Information

  • Object Identifier tree


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MIB information

  • Organizes protocol information (RFC 2578,2579,2580)

    • Sorta like the dewey decimal system for network monitoring.

    • Identification strings:

      • sysDescr

      • sysObjectID

      • sysUpTime

      • sysContact

      • sysName

      • sysLocation

      • sysServices


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Protocol Data Unit (PDU)

  • Data string for SNMP information


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SNMP Security

  • Read Community

    • Read data information from the remote system

  • Write Community

    • Write data to the remote system

  • Trap Community

    • Receive alarm information from the remote system.


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SNMP Security

  • Encryption

    • SNMP transfers may be encrypted

  • Authentication

    • Hashed function secret keys

  • Playback protection

    • A hacker can’t hijack the PDU strings

  • Access Control

    • Remote host can limit SNMP access to certain objects


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Tools at USU

  • http://statler.usu.edu

  • http://floyd.usu.edu

  • http://pomoxis.usu.edu

  • Interpreting the data


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Windows Administration

  • User Accounts

  • Group Accounts

  • UPS

  • Fault Tolerance

  • Backups


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System Administration

  • Users

    • Files, Rights, Groups

  • System

    • Security

    • Virus Protection

    • UPS

    • Fault Tolerance


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System Admin

  • Virus Protection

    • Scans incoming data for viruses

    • Scans the disk for trojans or backdoors

    • Must be updated regularly, all versions do this automatically if set up.

    • Beware of back door access to the server

    • Viruses may not slow down the server

    • Viruses may propagate via users address books


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UPS

  • Handles short duration power failures

  • Can alert the operator of power failure

  • Decide how long the UPS needs to power the system

  • Does the server display need to be on?

  • How much power does the server need?

  • Does the UPS have an RS232 control port?

  • Life of the UPS battery(ies)


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Server Admin

  • Fault Tolerance

    • Multiple power supplies

    • Multiple CPU’s

    • Fault Tolerant Disk systems

      • RAID 0 (disk striping)

      • RAID 1 (disk mirroring)

      • RAID 5 (disk striping with parity)

    • BACKUP


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Server Fault Tolerance

  • Dual Power supplies

    • Power supplies always fail first!

    • If one supply fails the other can take over

  • Dual CPU’s

    • Speed performance

    • The system can operate with only 1 CPU operating


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RAID!

  • RAID 0

    • Disk Striping

    • No fault tolerance

  • RAID 1

    • Disk Mirroring

    • High Disk Overhead (2-2GB disks=2GB)

    • High Write overhead (write to both disks)


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MORE RAID!

  • RAID 5

    • disk striping

    • parity blocks

    • Requires at least 3 disk drives

    • Can improve disk performance

    • lose and replace 1 disk drive and no data is lost

    • overhead is 1/N n=number of disks, 5 10GB disks = 40 GB storage


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Again Backups?

  • Even a fault tolerant disk system can fail

  • Always back up

  • Always have several copies of backups in case one is unreadable

  • Check the backups to see if they are readable

  • Store the tapes or removable media in a safe place


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Server Admin

  • Watch Event Logs for errors

    • Log files grow rapidly, delete old logs

  • Audit Disk usage and resources

  • Decide when an upgrade is needed


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Server Admin

  • Monitoring (Task Manager)

  • Resources:

    • Processor

    • Memory

    • Disk

    • Network

  • Baseline

    • To determine what is different week to week


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Server Administration

  • Network

    • File Sharing

    • Printing

    • Mail


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File Sharing

  • Howto

    • Set up networking, allow sharing

    • Who will access the files?

    • Do they need write access?

    • Is it secure?

      • Beware of instant messaging


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Printing

  • Local or remote

  • Shared from PC or networked printer

  • What about security?

  • Gotchas


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Mail

  • Exchange (Microsoft)

    • POP Mail (Post Office Protocol)

      • Downloads messages to the client

    • IMAP Mail (Internet Message Access Protocol)

      • Downloads headers (subject) to the client

      • Better Security

    • SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)

      • Sends messages from the client to the Internet

    • Calendaring (collaboration)


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Mail

  • Disk space

  • SPAMMING

  • Relaying


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Network Administration


  • Login