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1-E. Critical Thinking In Everyday Life. General Guidelines: 1. Read (or listen) carefully. 2. Look for hidden assumptions. 3. Identify the real issue. 4. Use visual aids. 5. Understand all the options. 6. Watch for fine print and missing information.

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Critical thinking in everyday life

1-E

Critical Thinking In Everyday Life

General Guidelines:

1. Read (or listen) carefully.

2. Look for hidden assumptions.

3. Identify the real issue.

4. Use visual aids.

5. Understand all the options.

6. Watch for fine print and missing information.

7. Are other conclusions possible?


Critical thinking in everyday life1

1-E

Critical Thinking In Everyday Life

General Guidelines.

1. Read (or listen) carefully.

2. Look for hidden assumptions.

3. Identify the real issue.

4. Use visual aids.

5. Understand all the options.

6. Watch for fine print and missing information.

7. Are other conclusions possible?


Example 1

Example 1

Shall there be an amendment to the Colorado constitution to prohibit the state of Colorado and any of its political subdivisions from adopting or enforcing any law or policy which provides that homosexual, lesbian, or bisexual orientation, conduct or relationships constitutes or entitles a person to claim any minority or protected status, quota preferences, or discrimination?


Shall there be an amendment to the Colorado constitution toprohibit the state of Colorado and any of its political subdivisions from adopting or enforcing any law or policy which provides that homosexual, lesbian, or bisexual orientation, conduct or relationships constitutes or entitles a person to claim any minority or protected status, quota preferences, or discrimination?


  • Yes = vote against gay rights

  • No = vote for gay rights


Critical thinking in everyday life2

1-E

Critical Thinking In Everyday Life

General Guidelines.

1. Read (or listen) carefully.

2. Look for hidden assumptions.

3. Identify the real issue.

4. Use visual aids.

5. Understand all the options.

6. Watch for fine print and missing information.

7. Are other conclusions possible?


Example 2

Example 2

We should build more prisons because incarcerating more criminals will reduce the crime rate.


Hidden assumptions
Hidden Assumptions:

  • If we build more prisons, more criminals can be put in them.

  • If we put more criminals in prisons, then the crime rate will be reduced.

  • Reducing the crime rate is a “good thing.”


Critical thinking in everyday life3

1-E

Critical Thinking In Everyday Life

General Guidelines.

1. Read (or listen) carefully.

2. Look for hidden assumptions.

3. Identify the real issue.

4. Use visual aids.

5. Understand all the options.

6. Watch for fine print and missing information.

7. Are other conclusions possible?


Example 3

Example 3

With last Saturday’s sellout crowd at the Moonlight Amphitheater, it is clear that the parking problem has become hopeless. Concert goers parked along residential streets up to a mile away from the amphitheater, badly overcrowding sidewalks, blocking driveways, and disrupting traffic. In light of this parking problem, future rock concerts should be canceled.


Critical thinking in everyday life4

1-E

Critical Thinking In Everyday Life

General Guidelines.

1. Read (or listen) carefully.

2. Look for hidden assumptions.

3. Identify the real issue.

4. Use visual aids.

5. Understand all the options.

6. Watch for fine print and missing information.

7. Are other conclusions possible?


Example 4

Example 4

A single person who can be claimed as a dependent on another person’s tax return and is either 65 or older or blind must file a return if

i) earned income was more than $5350 ($6400 if 65 or older and blind) or

ii) unearned income was more than $1750 ($2800 if 65 or older and blind) or

iii) gross income was more than the total of earned income (up to $4300) or $700, whichever is greater plus $1050 ($2100 if 65 or over and blind)


Chase is 15, and claimed as a dependent on his parent’s tax return. He has an earned income of $6500. Does this policy apply to Chase? Must he file a return?


Chase is 15, and claimed as a dependent on his parent’s tax return. He has an earned income of $6500. Does this policy apply to Chase? Must he file a return?

Over 65 ? (no)

blind ? (no)

So – does not apply to Chase


Carmen is single, 24, blind, claimed as a dependent on her parent’s return. Her earned income is $6500, and her unearned income is $750. Must she file a return?


Carmen is single, 24, blind, claimed as a dependent on her parent’s return. Her earned income is $6500, and her unearned income is $750. Must she file a return?

Over 65 ? (no) blind ? (yes)

Her earned income is more than $5350 – so she must file a return.


Serena is 68, single, blind, claimed as a dependent on her son’s return. Her gross income is $2500, earned income is $550. Must she file a return?


Serena is 68, single, blind, claimed as a dependent on her son’s return. Her gross income is $2500, earned income is $550. Must she file a return?

Over 65 ? (yes) blind ? (yes)

Gross income < $700+$2100 = $2800,

She does not need to file a return.


Critical thinking in everyday life5

1-E son’s return. Her gross income is $2500, earned income is $550. Must she file a return?

Critical Thinking In Everyday Life

General Guidelines.

1. Read (or listen) carefully.

2. Look for hidden assumptions.

3. Identify the real issue.

4. Use visual aids.

5. Understand all the options.

6. Watch for fine print and missing information.

7. Are other conclusions possible?


Example 5

Example 5 son’s return. Her gross income is $2500, earned income is $550. Must she file a return?

You are planning a trip six months in advance and discover you have two ticket options:

A fare of $1100, but 25% is nonrefundable if you change or cancel the ticket.

A fully refundable ticket is available for $1900.


Ticket A son’s return. Her gross income is $2500, earned income is $550. Must she file a return?

GO: $1100

Cancel: $275

Ticket B

GO: $1900

Cancel: $0


Critical thinking in everyday life6

1-E son’s return. Her gross income is $2500, earned income is $550. Must she file a return?

Critical Thinking In Everyday Life

General Guidelines.

1. Read (or listen) carefully.

2. Look for hidden assumptions.

3. Identify the real issue.

4. Use visual aids.

5. Understand all the options.

6. Watch for fine print and missing information.

7. Are other conclusions possible?


Example 6

Example 6 son’s return. Her gross income is $2500, earned income is $550. Must she file a return?

“I’ve enclosed $1.50 (that’s 1¢ for 12 CDs plus $1.49 for enrollment charge). I agree to buy 6 CDs at regular Club prices within the next two years.

A shipping/handling charge is added to each shipment. Applicable sales tax added to each order.


Critical thinking in everyday life7

1-E son’s return. Her gross income is $2500, earned income is $550. Must she file a return?

Critical Thinking In Everyday Life

General Guidelines.

1. Read (or listen) carefully.

2. Look for hidden assumptions.

3. Identify the real issue.

4. Use visual aids.

5. Understand all the options.

6. Watch for fine print and missing information.

7. Are other conclusions possible?


The development of nuclear weapons changed the way world leaders think about potential conflicts. A single nuclear weapon can kill millions of people, and the arsenals of the United States and the Soviet Union contained enough power to kill everyone on Earth many times over. This potential for catastrophic damage led to the idea of nuclear deterrence, which held that the United States and the Soviet Union would be deterred from direct warfare by the fear of nuclear war. For the more than 45 years of the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union never did fight directly. This was one of the longest periods in human history during which two major enemies avoided direct war. We can only conclude that nuclear deterrence prevented war between the United States and the Soviet Union.


Practice

Practice leaders think about potential conflicts. A single nuclear weapon can kill millions of people, and the arsenals of the United States and the Soviet Union contained enough power to kill everyone on Earth many times over. This potential for catastrophic damage led to the idea of nuclear deterrence, which held that the United States and the Soviet Union would be deterred from direct warfare by the fear of nuclear war. For the more than 45 years of the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union never did fight directly. This was one of the longest periods in human history during which two major enemies avoided direct war. We can only conclude that nuclear deterrence prevented war between the United States and the Soviet Union.

Although the plane crashed in Nevada, the survivors were buried in California.

Sue prefers the Red Shuttle because it gets her to the airport in an hour and a half, while the Blue Shuttle takes 80 minutes.


Practice1

Practice leaders think about potential conflicts. A single nuclear weapon can kill millions of people, and the arsenals of the United States and the Soviet Union contained enough power to kill everyone on Earth many times over. This potential for catastrophic damage led to the idea of nuclear deterrence, which held that the United States and the Soviet Union would be deterred from direct warfare by the fear of nuclear war. For the more than 45 years of the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union never did fight directly. This was one of the longest periods in human history during which two major enemies avoided direct war. We can only conclude that nuclear deterrence prevented war between the United States and the Soviet Union.

We should stop renting and buy a house now because interest rates are so low.

Hidden assumptions?


Practice2

Practice leaders think about potential conflicts. A single nuclear weapon can kill millions of people, and the arsenals of the United States and the Soviet Union contained enough power to kill everyone on Earth many times over. This potential for catastrophic damage led to the idea of nuclear deterrence, which held that the United States and the Soviet Union would be deterred from direct warfare by the fear of nuclear war. For the more than 45 years of the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union never did fight directly. This was one of the longest periods in human history during which two major enemies avoided direct war. We can only conclude that nuclear deterrence prevented war between the United States and the Soviet Union.

I need a special computer for a project I will be working on for the next 3 months. After that, I will no longer need the computer. I can lease the computer for $350/month, or I can buy it for $2100. If I resell it after 3 months, I can expect to get $1200.


Lease leaders think about potential conflicts. A single nuclear weapon can kill millions of people, and the arsenals of the United States and the Soviet Union contained enough power to kill everyone on Earth many times over. This potential for catastrophic damage led to the idea of nuclear deterrence, which held that the United States and the Soviet Union would be deterred from direct warfare by the fear of nuclear war. For the more than 45 years of the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union never did fight directly. This was one of the longest periods in human history during which two major enemies avoided direct war. We can only conclude that nuclear deterrence prevented war between the United States and the Soviet Union.

3x$350

=$1050

Purchase

$2100 – resale ($1200)

= $900


Practice3

Practice leaders think about potential conflicts. A single nuclear weapon can kill millions of people, and the arsenals of the United States and the Soviet Union contained enough power to kill everyone on Earth many times over. This potential for catastrophic damage led to the idea of nuclear deterrence, which held that the United States and the Soviet Union would be deterred from direct warfare by the fear of nuclear war. For the more than 45 years of the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union never did fight directly. This was one of the longest periods in human history during which two major enemies avoided direct war. We can only conclude that nuclear deterrence prevented war between the United States and the Soviet Union.

You own a small business and need to be in Houston on Monday for a meeting. You could fly to the meeting Monday morning and return Monday evening on a ticket priced at $750. However, if you include a Saturday night stay in your trip, the ticket will be only $335.


Practice4

Practice leaders think about potential conflicts. A single nuclear weapon can kill millions of people, and the arsenals of the United States and the Soviet Union contained enough power to kill everyone on Earth many times over. This potential for catastrophic damage led to the idea of nuclear deterrence, which held that the United States and the Soviet Union would be deterred from direct warfare by the fear of nuclear war. For the more than 45 years of the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union never did fight directly. This was one of the longest periods in human history during which two major enemies avoided direct war. We can only conclude that nuclear deterrence prevented war between the United States and the Soviet Union.

A hotel will cost $105/night

You estimate that meals away from home will cost ≈ $55 per day.


Monday leaders think about potential conflicts. A single nuclear weapon can kill millions of people, and the arsenals of the United States and the Soviet Union contained enough power to kill everyone on Earth many times over. This potential for catastrophic damage led to the idea of nuclear deterrence, which held that the United States and the Soviet Union would be deterred from direct warfare by the fear of nuclear war. For the more than 45 years of the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union never did fight directly. This was one of the longest periods in human history during which two major enemies avoided direct war. We can only conclude that nuclear deterrence prevented war between the United States and the Soviet Union.

$750

Saturday

$335

2x $105

2x $55

= $655


Practice5

Practice leaders think about potential conflicts. A single nuclear weapon can kill millions of people, and the arsenals of the United States and the Soviet Union contained enough power to kill everyone on Earth many times over. This potential for catastrophic damage led to the idea of nuclear deterrence, which held that the United States and the Soviet Union would be deterred from direct warfare by the fear of nuclear war. For the more than 45 years of the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union never did fight directly. This was one of the longest periods in human history during which two major enemies avoided direct war. We can only conclude that nuclear deterrence prevented war between the United States and the Soviet Union.

The athletic program is given more money than any academic department, so this university must value athletics over academics. Also, the football coach is the highest paid university employee.


Homework for wednesday

Homework for Wednesday leaders think about potential conflicts. A single nuclear weapon can kill millions of people, and the arsenals of the United States and the Soviet Union contained enough power to kill everyone on Earth many times over. This potential for catastrophic damage led to the idea of nuclear deterrence, which held that the United States and the Soviet Union would be deterred from direct warfare by the fear of nuclear war. For the more than 45 years of the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union never did fight directly. This was one of the longest periods in human history during which two major enemies avoided direct war. We can only conclude that nuclear deterrence prevented war between the United States and the Soviet Union.

Pages 75-79

#12, 19, 24, 34, 47


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