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Conservation of Energy Resources. Energy Crises Dependence on Nonrenewable resources. Implementing Sustainable Energy Use. Mining. Oil. Nuclear. Nonrenewable Energy Resources: Fossil Fuels. Provide 85-90% of the energy demand of the industrialized world coal, oil, natural gas

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conservation of energy resources
Conservation of Energy Resources
  • Energy Crises
  • Dependence on Nonrenewable resources
  • Implementing Sustainable Energy Use
nonrenewable energy resources fossil fuels
Nonrenewable EnergyResources: Fossil Fuels
  • Provide 85-90% of the energy demand of theindustrialized world
    • coal, oil, naturalgas
  • developing countries mainly use renewable
    • wood & dung
    • switching to non-renewable resources
coal creation
Coal Creation
  • Coal in use today originated as plant matter that grew in hot, muggy regions 225 to 350 million years ago
  • Over time, heat and pressure converted fallenorganic matter into peat, then coal
slide12
Coal
  • IndustrialRevolution in the 1800’s
  • Coal mining began in USA in 1860
  • Didn’t replace wood until late 1800’s, early 1900’s
  • Burned by electric companies and in some homes and factories
types of coal
Types of Coal
  • Three major types
    • lignite (brown coal) (lowest value)
    • bituminous (soft coal)
    • anthracite (hard coal) (highest value)
      • Vary in their carbon content, heat value
mining impacts underground mines
Mining Impactsundergroundmines
  • Wastes are removed and dumped
    • acid mine drainage: rainwater combineswith iron pyrite creating sulfuric acid
    • costly
mining impacts surface mines
Mining Impacts- surface mines
  • Overburden (overlying soil and rock)must be removed and put somewhere
    • aesthetics
    • can affect streams (sedimentation, turbidity, toxics)
    • New executive rule to allow dumping in waterways - 2003
reclamation
Reclamation
  • The rehabilitation of land altered by mining(or any other human activity)
  • 1977, The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act
    • companies must restore land to its previous condition
    • ONLY coal mining
new methods
New Methods
  • Fluidized Bed Combustion: crushed andmixed with limestone.
    • Low levels CO2
    • Reduced NO
    • Reduced SO2
new methods1
New Methods
  • Coal Gasification: slurry formed, heated and injected with Oxygen.  Cooled and burns like natural gas.
    • Less NO, SO2 produced
    • More CO2
new methods2
New Methods
  • Coal Liquefaction: treated like crude oil
    • Very costly
    • Released Phenol
      • Carcinogen
    • Same level of CO2 produced
slide29
Oil
  • Relatively easy to transport long distances (by ship orpipeline)
  • Burns cleaner than coal, but dirtier than natural gas
  • Refined to produce gasoline
slide30
In short supply
  • 30 - 45 years
  • But, oil consumption has been increasing-
    • may only last 20 years total
impacts of oil
Impacts of Oil
  • Extraction of Oil
  • Destroy habitat
  • Increase soil erosion
  • Leaks or spills
    • kills vegetation and wildlife
    • seeps into groundwater
oil shale
Oil Shale
  • Sedimentary rock formed millions ofyears ago at the bottom ofprehistoric lakes
    • within the rock is a solid organic: kerogen
    • oily residue, = shale oil.
    • Refined to produce gasoline
    • Enormous economic and environmental coststo extract
    • Major reserve in Colorado, Wyoming and
    • Utah- the Green River Formation
      • 30 years of energy?
oil shale1
Oil Shale
  • Same problems as with mines
    • habitat destruction, pollution etc
  • Disposal of waste: spent shale (contaminatedrock)- can contaminate water
    • Process expands the rock by 12% so not all of it fits back in the mine
    • Uses LOTS of water
    • Toxics, SO2, NO2
nuclear power
Nuclear Power
  • Fission: Splitting of certain atoms whenthey are hit by radiation, gives offenergy.
nuclear power benefits
Nuclear Power:Benefits
  • longer availability of raw materials than fossil fuels, produces much more energy
  • less air pollution
  • reduces dependency on foreign oil
  • releases less radiation than a coal plant!
  • Risk of accident is VERY low, much safer thanmining

Palisades Nuclear Power Plant

Covert, MI

nuclear power drawbacks
Nuclear Power: Drawbacks
  • catastrophic accidents,
    • releases radiation
  • production costs
    • break even after 30 years (life span of facilities is also about 30 years)
  • Doesn’t replace oil
  • thermal pollution
  • dealing with spent fuel
    • have to bury it somewhere like hazardouswaste
    • Nevada/ Yucca Mountain a repository for waste
yucca mountain nuclear waste disposal
Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Disposal
  • Receive by 2010 RR transport
accidents chernobyl
AccidentsChernobyl
  • Released radiation for about 2 weeks
  • 31 people were killed immediately, 237 were hospitalized with burns
  • People were evacuated, never to return home
  • 60 square miles were so badly contaminated that itwill lie fallow for many decades (prime ag land)
  • Total costs amount to $10 billion
  • Causing livestock loss in neighboring countries
  • 20 countries were dusted with radiation
  • Cancer increased dramatically
case study anwr
Case Study: ANWR
  • Created with passage of Alaska National
  • Interest Lands Conservation Act
  • -passed 1980 signed by Pres. Carter
  • -19.5 M acres = National Refuge
  • - 8 M acres designated
  • Wilderness
  • - 1002 Area (1.5 M acres)
case study anwr4
Case Study: ANWR
  • 1002 Area = coastal plain closed to oil
  • & gas exploration unless
  • authorized by Congress & signed
  • by President
  • 1995 – Congress passed budget legislation
  • to allow drilling, Pres. Clinton veto
  • Summer 2000 – House of Rep. voted to
  • drill in ANWR
  • April 2002 – Senate rejected oil drilling
  • provisions
  • Conference committee must resolve
  • differences between House & Senate
  • bills
  • President Bush will sign bill to drill in
  • ANWR
case study anwr6
Case Study: ANWR
  • North Slope oil facilities have physical “footprint” on 10,000 acres
  • North Slope industrial complex (roads, pipelines, satellite wells) extends over 800 square miles (100 miles wide)
case study anwr9
Case Study: ANWR
  • 1,400 miles of seismic lines surveyed
  • in 1002 Area, 1984-1985
  • 1985 exploratory well drilled on KIC
  • lands; well plugged;
  • results confidential
case study anwr16
Case Study: ANWR

* 5% reduction in calf survival = pop. decline

case study anwr17
Case Study: ANWR

* 40% dens in 1002 Area

case study anwr19
Case Study: ANWR
  • Economically-recoverable oil (at $24 per barrel)
  • 95% chance of 1.9 billion barrels of oil (BBO)
  • 50% chance of 5.3 BBO
  • 5% chance of 9.4 BBO
  • If drill today, oil will be available for use in 10 years
  • Current oil consumption in USA = 19 million barrels of oil per day = 7 BBO per year
  • If 50% chance of 5.3 BBO in ANWR = 9 month supply
  • Raising automobile fuel efficiency standards from 27.5 mpg to 35 mpg by 2013 would save 1 BBO per year by 2020
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