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Conservation of Energy Resources. Energy Crises Dependence on Nonrenewable resources. Implementing Sustainable Energy Use. Mining. Oil. Nuclear. Nonrenewable Energy Resources: Fossil Fuels. Provide 85-90% of the energy demand of the industrialized world coal, oil, natural gas

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Conservation of energy resources
Conservation of Energy Resources

  • Energy Crises

  • Dependence on Nonrenewable resources

  • Implementing Sustainable Energy Use





Nonrenewable energy resources fossil fuels
Nonrenewable EnergyResources: Fossil Fuels

  • Provide 85-90% of the energy demand of theindustrialized world

    • coal, oil, naturalgas

  • developing countries mainly use renewable

    • wood & dung

    • switching to non-renewable resources


Coal creation
Coal Creation

  • Coal in use today originated as plant matter that grew in hot, muggy regions 225 to 350 million years ago

  • Over time, heat and pressure converted fallenorganic matter into peat, then coal


Coal

  • IndustrialRevolution in the 1800’s

  • Coal mining began in USA in 1860

  • Didn’t replace wood until late 1800’s, early 1900’s

  • Burned by electric companies and in some homes and factories


Types of coal
Types of Coal

  • Three major types

    • lignite (brown coal) (lowest value)

    • bituminous (soft coal)

    • anthracite (hard coal) (highest value)

      • Vary in their carbon content, heat value




Mining impacts underground mines
Mining Impactsundergroundmines

  • Wastes are removed and dumped

    • acid mine drainage: rainwater combineswith iron pyrite creating sulfuric acid

    • costly




Mining impacts surface mines
Mining Impacts- surface mines

  • Overburden (overlying soil and rock)must be removed and put somewhere

    • aesthetics

    • can affect streams (sedimentation, turbidity, toxics)

    • New executive rule to allow dumping in waterways - 2003


Reclamation
Reclamation

  • The rehabilitation of land altered by mining(or any other human activity)

  • 1977, The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act

    • companies must restore land to its previous condition

    • ONLY coal mining


New methods
New Methods

  • Fluidized Bed Combustion: crushed andmixed with limestone.

    • Low levels CO2

    • Reduced NO

    • Reduced SO2


New methods1
New Methods

  • Coal Gasification: slurry formed, heated and injected with Oxygen.  Cooled and burns like natural gas.

    • Less NO, SO2 produced

    • More CO2


New methods2
New Methods

  • Coal Liquefaction: treated like crude oil

    • Very costly

    • Released Phenol

      • Carcinogen

    • Same level of CO2 produced



Oil

  • Relatively easy to transport long distances (by ship orpipeline)

  • Burns cleaner than coal, but dirtier than natural gas

  • Refined to produce gasoline


  • In short supply

  • 30 - 45 years

  • But, oil consumption has been increasing-

    • may only last 20 years total


Impacts of oil
Impacts of Oil

  • Extraction of Oil

  • Destroy habitat

  • Increase soil erosion

  • Leaks or spills

    • kills vegetation and wildlife

    • seeps into groundwater


Oil shale
Oil Shale

  • Sedimentary rock formed millions ofyears ago at the bottom ofprehistoric lakes

    • within the rock is a solid organic: kerogen

    • oily residue, = shale oil.

    • Refined to produce gasoline

    • Enormous economic and environmental coststo extract

    • Major reserve in Colorado, Wyoming and

    • Utah- the Green River Formation

      • 30 years of energy?


Oil shale1
Oil Shale

  • Same problems as with mines

    • habitat destruction, pollution etc

  • Disposal of waste: spent shale (contaminatedrock)- can contaminate water

    • Process expands the rock by 12% so not all of it fits back in the mine

    • Uses LOTS of water

    • Toxics, SO2, NO2


Nuclear power
Nuclear Power

  • Fission: Splitting of certain atoms whenthey are hit by radiation, gives offenergy.


Nuclear power benefits
Nuclear Power:Benefits

  • longer availability of raw materials than fossil fuels, produces much more energy

  • less air pollution

  • reduces dependency on foreign oil

  • releases less radiation than a coal plant!

  • Risk of accident is VERY low, much safer thanmining

Palisades Nuclear Power Plant

Covert, MI


Nuclear power drawbacks
Nuclear Power: Drawbacks

  • catastrophic accidents,

    • releases radiation

  • production costs

    • break even after 30 years (life span of facilities is also about 30 years)

  • Doesn’t replace oil

  • thermal pollution

  • dealing with spent fuel

    • have to bury it somewhere like hazardouswaste

    • Nevada/ Yucca Mountain a repository for waste


Yucca mountain nuclear waste disposal
Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Disposal

  • Receive by 2010 RR transport


Accidents chernobyl
AccidentsChernobyl

  • Released radiation for about 2 weeks

  • 31 people were killed immediately, 237 were hospitalized with burns

  • People were evacuated, never to return home

  • 60 square miles were so badly contaminated that itwill lie fallow for many decades (prime ag land)

  • Total costs amount to $10 billion

  • Causing livestock loss in neighboring countries

  • 20 countries were dusted with radiation

  • Cancer increased dramatically


Case study anwr
Case Study: ANWR

  • Created with passage of Alaska National

  • Interest Lands Conservation Act

  • -passed 1980 signed by Pres. Carter

  • -19.5 M acres = National Refuge

  • - 8 M acres designated

  • Wilderness

  • - 1002 Area (1.5 M acres)





Case study anwr4
Case Study: ANWR

  • 1002 Area = coastal plain closed to oil

  • & gas exploration unless

  • authorized by Congress & signed

  • by President

  • 1995 – Congress passed budget legislation

  • to allow drilling, Pres. Clinton veto

  • Summer 2000 – House of Rep. voted to

  • drill in ANWR

  • April 2002 – Senate rejected oil drilling

  • provisions

  • Conference committee must resolve

  • differences between House & Senate

  • bills

  • President Bush will sign bill to drill in

  • ANWR



Case study anwr6
Case Study: ANWR

  • North Slope oil facilities have physical “footprint” on 10,000 acres

  • North Slope industrial complex (roads, pipelines, satellite wells) extends over 800 square miles (100 miles wide)




Case study anwr9
Case Study: ANWR

  • 1,400 miles of seismic lines surveyed

  • in 1002 Area, 1984-1985

  • 1985 exploratory well drilled on KIC

  • lands; well plugged;

  • results confidential








Case study anwr16
Case Study: ANWR

* 5% reduction in calf survival = pop. decline


Case study anwr17
Case Study: ANWR

* 40% dens in 1002 Area



Case study anwr19
Case Study: ANWR

  • Economically-recoverable oil (at $24 per barrel)

  • 95% chance of 1.9 billion barrels of oil (BBO)

  • 50% chance of 5.3 BBO

  • 5% chance of 9.4 BBO

  • If drill today, oil will be available for use in 10 years

  • Current oil consumption in USA = 19 million barrels of oil per day = 7 BBO per year

  • If 50% chance of 5.3 BBO in ANWR = 9 month supply

  • Raising automobile fuel efficiency standards from 27.5 mpg to 35 mpg by 2013 would save 1 BBO per year by 2020


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