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Communism Overseas. China Falls to Communism. Japan attacked China in 1937 Both sides, Communists and Nationalists joined forces during World War II, but not after Communist leader – Mao Zedong (North) Nationalists’ president – Chiang Kai- shek (South)

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china falls to communism
China Falls to Communism
  • Japan attacked China in 1937
  • Both sides, Communists and Nationalists joined forces during World War II, but not after
  • Communist leader – Mao Zedong (North)
  • Nationalists’ president – Chiang Kai-shek (South)
  • May, 1949 - Chiang and officials flee to Taiwan
chiang kai shek
Chiang Kai-shek
  • Financial aid from USA
  • Struggled with inflation and failing economy – increased taxes even during famine (started in 1944)
  • Military suffered from weak leadership and poor morale
  • Americans supported the Nationalists – why?
  • Truman refused to assist with military support – why?
mao zedong
Mao Zedong
  • Financial aid from Soviet Union
  • Propaganda campaigns for national liberation
  • Promise of land reform appealed to peasants (when land taken over, redistributed and given to peasants)
  • Experienced guerrilla army highly motivated
  • Chinese support for Communism grows
failure for truman
Failure for Truman
  • Containment fails!
  • Some Congressional members blame Truman only
  • State Department blamed internal forces in China and South Korea
  • Fear of spread of communism strong in USA
korean war 1950 1953
Korean War 1950 - 1953
  • Japan controlled Korea from 1910 – 1945
  • Japanese troops north of 38th parallel surrendered to the Soviets – south of 38th to Americans
  • By 1949, USA and SU had withdrawn troops
  • North Korea - Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
  • North - Industrial
  • Government headed by Kim Il Sung
  • Capital in Pyongyang
  • South Korea – Republic of Korea
  • South - Agricultural
  • Government headed by Syngman Rhee
  • Capital in Seoul, Korea’s traditional capital
first attacks success of north koreans
First Attacks / Success of North Koreans
  • June 25, 1950, North Korean troops invade South Korea
  • Americans fear that another Asian country will fall to communism
  • President Truman, with support of Congress, takes military action immediately with air and naval support for South Korea
slide8

AMERICAN OBJECTIVE: to remove North Korean troops from South Korea and stop the spread of communism into South Korea!

un security council
UN Security Council
  • June 27, 1950, Council asked nations to help South Korea
  • 16 nations sent 520,000 troops; 90% of troops were Americans
  • South Korea had 590,000 of their own troops
general douglas macarthur
General Douglas MacArthur
  • All forces put under command of MacArthur
  • Within a month North Korean troops had taken Seoul and pushed UN and South Korean troops into Pusan Perimeter
un and south korean troops counterattack sept 15 1950
UN and South Korean Troops Counterattack (Sept 15, 1950)
  • Tanks, heavy artillery, fresh troops from USA
  • September 15, 1950, amphibious landing behind enemy lines at Inchon
  • ½ of North Korean troops surrender, ½ return over 28th parallel
  • MacArthur again a hero in USA – seen as one of the most brilliant military strategies in history

OBJECTIVE ACCOMPLISHED!

un general assembly
UN General Assembly
  • October 7, 1950 - recommends removing communism from all of Korea
  • BUT, China’s foreign minister, Zhou Enlai, warned that his country would not stand by and “let the Americans come to the border” of the Yalu River
  • MacArthur assured Truman that China was not a threat; troops would be home by Christmas
china enters korean war
China enters Korean War
  • November 25, 1950, 300,000 Chinese troops attack UN and South Korean troops, pushing them back over the 38th parallel, losing Seoul again by January 4, 1951
macarthur wants to attack china
MacArthur wants to Attack China
  • Plan to blockade Chinese coast and use atomic bombs
  • Hoped Chiang Kai-shek’s (China) troops would join
  • Truman fears World War III, declines MacArthur’s request
  • UN and South Korean troops continue to push into North Korea, reaching 38th parallel but no further (same spot as October 1950)
macarthur tries to rally support
MacArthur tries to rally support
  • He writes to newspaper and magazine publishers as well as Republican leaders
  • On April 11, 1951, MacArthur is relieved of his command by Truman
  • Americans upset at removal of MacArthur – a war hero from World War II and Korea
  • Eventually public will support Truman’s idea to avoid war with China
  • Matthew Ridgeway will replace MacArthur

“Old Soldiers Never Die” Speech

peace talks july 1951
Peace Talks – July, 1951
  • Divide between 38th parallel
  • Another year spent determining guidelines for POWs
  • Dwight D. Eisenhower (R) becomes president; promises to go to Korea
july 1953 armistice signed
July 1953, armistice signed
  • A stalemate
  • 54,000 American lives lost, $20 billion spent
  • Fight against communism gets even hotter
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