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Foundation Psychology. The Psychology of Recovery and Rehabilitation. Dan Eaves. Learning Outcomes. Today’s session you should develop: An understanding of the nature of stress and recovery from a biological, psychological and social (biopsychosocial) perspective. Overview.

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The psychology of recovery and rehabilitation

Foundation Psychology

The Psychology of Recovery and Rehabilitation

Dan Eaves


Learning outcomes
Learning Outcomes

  • Today’s session you should develop:

  • An understanding of the nature of stress and recovery from a biological, psychological and social (biopsychosocial) perspective.


Overview
Overview

  • Training and recovery

  • Maximising recovery

  • Stress, emotion and performance


Reading
Reading

Chapter 1

Kellmann, M. (2002). Enhancing Recovery: Preventing Underperformance in Athletes. Human Kinetics, London.


The psychology of injury
The Psychology of Injury

  • “Fitness is confidence” Stanley Matthews

    But can you trust everything you hear...?

  • “He’s got a knock on his shin there, just above the knee.” Frank Stapleton

  • “I don’t think there’s anyone bigger or smaller than Maradona.” Kevin Kegan


Performance enhancement
Performance Enhancement (?)

  • Can the rate of recovery

    from intense training

    predetermine success?

  • The harder we train, the larger the performance improvement

  • – up to what point?


Why do people enjoy sport and exercise
Why do people enjoy Sport and exercise?

  • Social

  • Competition

  • Physical

  • Emotional

  • Pleasure??


However there are dangers
However, There are Dangers…

  • Research must determine the threshold between commitment and dependence to determine whether exercise is positive or negative.

  • Popular explanations for exercise dependence are based upon endorphin production and on personality.


Training programmes psychobiosocial states
Training Programmes (psychobiosocial states)

  • The development of effective new training techniques must acknowledge the need to avoid over training (Kellmann, 2002).

    • Illness, burnout, injury, fatigue, mood

  • Both physiological and psychological limits are intimately linked and are very individualised.

  • Optimal training must allow for optimal recovery in order to achieve optimal performance.


Optimal training
Optimal Training

Recovery

Time

Training

Stress

  • This balance is an integral part of training, which is often overlooked (Rowbottom et al. 1998).


Underrecovery
Underrecovery

  • Underrecovery:

    • The failure to fulfil current recovery demands.

  • This can result from excessively prolonged and/or intense exercise, stressful competition, and/or other life stressors.

  • Reduces the possibility for optimal performance.


  • “…I was brain dead and couldn’t wait to get to bed. Sometimes I’d fall asleep straight away, but other times I had trouble turning my mind off . . . Worrying about classes, wondering what the coach was thinking, asking myself if I belonged here, or not…

    “…The next thing I knew, the alarm clock was buzzing and it was time to get up and do it all over again. I had no social life, nothing was any fun, and I wasn’t doing anything very well – I felt I was barely getting by.”


Awareness of recovery process
Awareness of Recovery Process Sometimes I’d fall asleep straight away, but other times I had trouble turning my mind off . . . Worrying about classes, wondering what the coach was thinking, asking myself if I belonged here, or not…

  • Overtraining is very difficult to define.

  • Recognising that during intense training appropriate recovery periods must be available (Kellmann, 2002).

  • Not simply “less is more”, but must be individually tailored.


Stress and homeostasis
Stress and Homeostasis Sometimes I’d fall asleep straight away, but other times I had trouble turning my mind off . . . Worrying about classes, wondering what the coach was thinking, asking myself if I belonged here, or not…

  • Stress can be seen as a destabilisation or deviation from the norm in a biological and/or psychological system.

  • Seen as an external influence or impact.

  • This prompts individualised cognitive (thought) appraisals:

    “Can I cope?”

    “Stress makes cowards of us all.” (Lombardi, 1959)


Task!!! Sometimes I’d fall asleep straight away, but other times I had trouble turning my mind off . . . Worrying about classes, wondering what the coach was thinking, asking myself if I belonged here, or not…

  • How can you tell someone isn’t coping?

  • Write down as many examples as you can think of…

    • to be followed up in seminars (next week!)


Stress and homeostasis1

Stress responses: Sometimes I’d fall asleep straight away, but other times I had trouble turning my mind off . . . Worrying about classes, wondering what the coach was thinking, asking myself if I belonged here, or not…

Fatigue

Emotion and Mood

Anxiety, anger, frustration, despair, sadness

Low Self-efficacy

Increased CNS activity

Hormonal

Cellular / physical

Changes in immune system.

Behavioural

Social factors

Stress and Homeostasis

Fatigue indicates that functional capacities are decreasing, and this is usually accompanied by feelings of discomfort.


Stress and recovery
Stress and Recovery Sometimes I’d fall asleep straight away, but other times I had trouble turning my mind off . . . Worrying about classes, wondering what the coach was thinking, asking myself if I belonged here, or not…

  • Recovery must take into account the resources needed to cope, and thus the strength of the person to be able to deal with the pressure.

  • The intensity, duration, distribution over time and nature of stress determines the recovery rate for an individual.

  • Recovery = active reestablishment of initial homeostatic balance after stress (cellular/psychological).

  • This is both gradual and cumulative.


Developing coping
Developing Coping Sometimes I’d fall asleep straight away, but other times I had trouble turning my mind off . . . Worrying about classes, wondering what the coach was thinking, asking myself if I belonged here, or not…

The role of awareness:

  • Careful to recognise responses

  • Encourage willingness to reflect on all aspects of performance.

  • Acceptance of strengths, weaknesses, and realistic performance goals.

  • Debriefing – summarising resources/situation

  • Determining a need for change (motivation).

  • Goal setting


Izof modelling
IZOF Modelling Sometimes I’d fall asleep straight away, but other times I had trouble turning my mind off . . . Worrying about classes, wondering what the coach was thinking, asking myself if I belonged here, or not…

  • Performance emotions as indicators of optimal recovery states.

  • The IZOF is used as an individualised retrospective report which may indicate levels of recovery.


Summary
Summary Sometimes I’d fall asleep straight away, but other times I had trouble turning my mind off . . . Worrying about classes, wondering what the coach was thinking, asking myself if I belonged here, or not…

  • Optimal performance is only possible if optimal recovery processes are permitted.

  • This must be considered on an individualised, psychobiosocial level.


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