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Immune Response. Innate Immune Response. The Immune System. The immune system is a group of cells & soluble molecules, which interact & distinguish patterns in the body as “self” or “non-self,” in order to eliminate those that are “non-self.” “Non-self” entities include:

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Immune response

Immune Response

Innate Immune Response


The immune system
The Immune System

  • The immune system is a group of cells & soluble molecules, which interact & distinguish patterns in the body as “self” or “non-self,” in order to eliminate those that are “non-self.”

  • “Non-self” entities include:

    • Microorganisms, transplants, tumors, foreign substances (eg: asbestos, particulate matter)


The immune response
The Immune Response

  • To achieve its duty, the immune system has developed two mechanisms:

    • Innate immune response (IIR)

      • Non- specific

    • Adaptive immune response (AIR)

      • Specific

    • Together, these two systems provide an efficient defense system

  • It makes it possible that although we spend our lives surrounded by germs, we sporadically get sick.

    • Most infections are fixed successfully by IIR

    • Other infections that IIR can not resolve, AIR will be triggered and overcome successfully

      • This is followed by lasting immunological memory


Innate immune response iir
Innate Immune Response (IIR)

  • Is the first line of defense in the Immune response

  • Crucial to control of microorganisms growing freely during early stage of IR

  • Lacks memory

  • It is NOT antigen (Ag) specific

  • There are a limited recognition molecules

  • Leads to the AIR



Iir external barriers
IIR: External Barriers

  • First line of defense against pathogenic “invaders”

    • Skin

      • Largest organ in the body

      • Produce lactic (low pH) & fatty acids, sweat, skin oils, which make it difficult for microorganisms (MO’s) to survive

      • When skin is injured, protects the body by way of inflammation

    • Mucus

      • Mucosal membranes (mb) lining inner surfaces of the body secrete mucus, which function as protective carbohydrate layer to stop bacterial invasion

      • Also traps and removes bacteria & particulate matter, by complementary action of cilliary movement, sneezing, coughing

    • Body secretions

      • Washing actions of tears, saliva, and urine removes bacteria and foreign particles from the body


Natural or innate immunity inflammation
Natural or Innate Immunity: Inflammation

  • When pathogenic agents penetrate external barriers, the first reaction of the body is the inflammatory response

    • Any time the cells or tissues of the body are injured, internally or on the surface, by whatever agent, the inflammatory response occurs

    • Acute Inflammatory Response occurs in blood vessels near injury

      • Acute Inflammatory Response helps leukocytes to leave the blood vessel (diapedesisor emigration) & travel to injury site via chemotaxis


Acute inflammatory response
Acute Inflammatory Response

  • Chemotaxis- is the movement of cells in response to a chemical attractant

  • Interferon- if the cell injury is due to viral infections, interferon, a protein that protects the body against viral infections is released


Inflammation
Inflammation

  • Cardinal signs of acute inflammation

    • Redness

    • Heat

    • Swelling

    • Pain

    • Impairment of function (sometimes)

  • Inflammatory mediators

    • Histamine

    • Blood proteins

    • Kinins, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and complement

      • Released by injured tissue, phagocytes, lymphocytes, basophils, and mast cells


Acute inflammatory response1
Acute Inflammatory Response

  • Complement- a complex of interrelated and interacting proteins manufactured in the liver

    • It is the major mechanism for destroying foreign substances

    • Active in inflammation and phagocytosis and also assists the action of antibodies in the specific response if the infecting agent is not destroyed by the nonspecific defenses


Innatedefenses

Internaldefenses

Inflammatorychemicalsdiffusingfrom theinflamed siteact as chemotacticagents.

4

Chemotaxis.Neutrophilsfollow chemicaltrail.

Capillary wall

Basementmembrane

Endothelium

1

2

3

Leukocytosis.Neutrophils enter bloodfrom bone marrow.

Margination.Neutrophils clingto capillary wall.

Diapedesis.Neutrophils flatten andsqueeze out of capillaries.

Figure 21.4, step 4



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