El establecimiento de nuevas poblaciones. Establecimiento de nuevas poblaciones silvestres o semi-silvestres Incrementando el tamaño de poblaciones existentes.
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El establecimiento de nuevas poblaciones
Estos programas no serán efectivos si los factores que llevaron al declive de las poblaciones originales no se han eliminado o controlado
it is the world's only flightless parrot, the heaviest parrot, nocturnal, herbivorous, visibly sexually dimorphic in body size, has a low basal metabolic rate, no male parental care, and is the only parrot to have a polygynouslek breeding system. It is also possibly one of the world's longest-living birds
Kakapo are critically endangered; only 91 living individuals are known, all of which have been given names. The ancestral Kakapo migrated to the islands of New Zealand in prehistory; in the absence of mammalian predators, it lost the ability to fly. Because of Polynesian and European colonisation and the introduction of predators such as cats, rats, and stoats, most of the Kakapo were wiped out. Conservation efforts began in the 1890s, but they were not very successful until the implementation of the Kakapo Recovery Plan in the 1980s. As of November 2005, surviving Kakapo are kept on four predator-free islands, Maud, Chalky (Te Kakahu), Codfish (Whenua Hou) and Anchor islands, where they are closely monitored. Two large Fiordland islands, Resolution and Secretary, have been the subject of large-scale ecological restoration activities to prepare self-sustaining ecosystems with suitable habitat for the Kakapo.
Codfish island or Whenua Hou is a small island (14 km²) located to the west of Stewart Island/Rakiura in southern New Zealand. It reaches a height of 249 m close to the south coast. It is a predator-free bird sanctuary and the focus of kakapo recovery efforts. The majority of the breeding population of critically endangered kakapo are currently located on this island. The island is also home to southern short-tailed bats, kākā, fernbirds, red and yellow-crowned parakeets, and a recently introduced population of yellowheads (mohua). Yellow-eyed and Fiordland penguins breed along the coastline.
The island is frequented by scientific researchers and Department of Conservation field workers along with public volunteers. The sole hut is located at in the northeast, with access by light aircraft or helicopter. The island is closed to visitors and unauthorised landing is prohibited.
The English name refers to the endemic blue cod or rawaru / pakirikiri, which is fished commercially in surrounding waters by trapping in baited pots. Whenua Hou means "new land" in Maori.
Kakapo recovery plan
Kakapo Translocations 1974–1992
A key part of the Recovery Plan is the supplementary feeding of females. Kakapo breed only once every two to five years, when a certain type of plant species, primarily Dacrydium cupressinum (rimu), produces protein-rich fruit and seeds. Observations of the relationship between intermittent breeding and the plant's mast year help biologists choose which suitable supplementary foods to increase Kakapo breeding frequency. In 1989, six preferred foods (apples, sweet potatoes, almonds, brazil nuts, sunflower seeds and walnuts) were supplied ad libitum each night to 12 feeding stations. Males and females ate the supplied foods, and females nested on Little Barrier Island in the summers of 1989–91 for the first time since 1982, although nesting success was low.
Supplementary feeding not only increases the Kakapo breeding frequency, but also affects the sex ratio of Kakapo offspring, as maternal conditions influence this ratio. (See section "Reproduction" for more information on this topic.) This finding was subsequently used to increase the number of female chicks by deliberately manipulating maternal condition. During the winter of 1981, only females below 1.5 kg weight were given supplementary feeding to avoid raising their body condition, and the sex ratio results in 1982 were close to parity, eliminating the male-biased sex ratios in the unrestricted feeding.
Chief Joseph Pack - 1996
Pack Composition: 13 Wolves
-compromiso a largo plazo
-altamente emocionales para el público
-necesita el apoyo de la comunidad local
-pueden necesitarse técnicas de “liberación suave” con entrenamientos o suplementos de alimento, etc.
-deben monitorearse actividades humanas que puedan impactar a los animales liberados
-pueden tener valor educativo
Reintroducción de peces de vida corta en el oeste de USA: 26% de éxito.
Programas de reintroducción de anfibios, reptiles e invertebrados, muy baja probabilidad de éxito, probablemente debido a las exigentes condiciones de microhábitat requeridas por las especies
Algunas reintroducciones que al principio parecen exitosas después fracasan
Conductas sociales en los individuos liberados: en animales criados en cautiverio solos o en grupos no naturales, ello son tienen las habilidades para sobrevivir en un ambiente naturales, o las habilidades sociales para encontrar comida en forma cooperativa, sentir el peligro, encontrar pareja y sacar adelante a los polluelos
Alligator River National Park. N Carolina, 42 -> 100 desde 1987, parece exitoso, locales tienen dudas, hibridizan con coyotes
Tortuga lora (Lepidochelys kempii)
Trataron de cuidar un año juveniles de huevos traídos de México en una playa de Isla del Padre en Texas, se liberaron 22,000 entre 1978 y 1988 y solamente 32 regresaron a anidar en la playa, (6 del programa headstart), poco éxito, se descontinuó el programa pues la mortandad ocurre con la pesca, no en la playa
150 individuos cultivados fueron introducidos , y en 202 el 40% de estas plantas aún están vivas pero no se ha desarrollado una segunda generación