Chapter 20 digestive system
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Chapter 20: Digestive System. Chapter 21: Urinary System. Functions of Digestion. Ingest food Break down food in to small molecules: Mechanical digestion- Chemical digestion – Absorption Elimination. Carbohydrates. Include sugars and their polymers Monomer is the monosaccharide

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Chapter 20: Digestive System

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Chapter 20 digestive system

Chapter 20: Digestive System

Chapter 21: Urinary System


Functions of digestion

Functions of Digestion

  • Ingest food

  • Break down food in to small molecules:

    • Mechanical digestion-

    • Chemical digestion –

  • Absorption

  • Elimination


Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

  • Include sugars and their polymers

  • Monomer is the monosaccharide

  • Include 3 – 7 carbons with the –OH group being present on each carbon except one, which is double bonded to an oxygen (carbonyl group)


Lipids

Lipids

  • A group of polymers that have one characteristic in common, they do not mix with water. They are hydrophobic.

  • Some important groups are fats, phospholipids, and steroids.


Enzymes

Enzymes

  • Increase speed of chemical reactions - catalyst

  • A protein

  • Can change shape if conditions are not favorable.


Alimentary canal

Alimentary Canal

  • Hollow tube that begins at the mouth, ends at the anus

    • Mouth

    • Pharynx

    • Esophagus

    • Stomach

    • Small intestine

    • Large intestine

    • Rectum


A mouth

A. Mouth

  • Forms a bolus

  • Chemical digestion – mucous, amylase (break down carbs)

  • Mechanical digestion: chewing

  • Roof of mouth:

    • Hard palate

    • Soft palate


Tongue and taste

Tongue and Taste

  • Lingual frendulum – attaches tongue to floor of mouth

  • Taste buds:

    • Papillae: elevations on tongue


Salivary glands

Salivary Glands

  • Saliva – water mucous, amalase

  • Parotid – front of and below ears. (mumps)

  • Sublingual

  • submandibular


B pharynx

B.Pharynx

  • Region between mouth and esophagus

  • “throat”

  • Function – swallowing

  • Epiglottis – blocks larynx

  • Uvula – back of throat


C esophagus

C. Esophagus

  • Lined by mucous membrane and smooth muscle

  • Peristalsis – involuntary contraction of esophagus

  • Heartburn – (acid reflux)


Esophagus continued

Esophagus Continued


D stomach

D. Stomach

  • Stores food and digests protein

  • Rugae – folds inside stomach

  • Ulcers


Stomach continued

Stomach Continued

  • Gastric Juice – produces Chyme

    • Pepsin – enzyme that digests protein

    • HCL – kills bacteria, breaks down food,

    • Intrinsic factor – absorption of B12.

    • Mucous – softens food

    • Gastrin – hormone that causes gastric juice to be released.


E small intestine

E. Small Intestine

  • Function- receives secretions from the liver, pancreas and absorption of nutrients.

  • Lined with Villi – furry looking, absorption, increase surface area


F large intestine

F. Large Intestine

  • Function – absorb water, produce feces

  • E.coli bacteria present


Disorders of large intestine

Disorders of Large Intestine

  • Diarrhea –

  • Constipation –

  • Appendicitis –

  • Diverticuloisis – colon cancer

  • Colonoscopy


Part 2 digestive system

Part 2: Digestive System

Accessory organs – food does not pass through


1 pancreas

1. Pancreas

  • Secretes Sodium Bicarbonate and enzymes to digest carbohydrates, proteins, and fats


2 liver largest gland

2. Liver – Largest gland

  • Storage of glucose as glycogen

  • Destruction of old red blood cells – this creates bilirubin

  • Production of bile

  • Plasma proteins

  • Detoxification of blood

  • Storage of iron and other vitamins


Liver lobule anatomy

Liver Lobule Anatomy

  • Functional unit of the liver.

  • Blood travels from small intestine – hepatic portal vein – to various liver lobules.


3 liver disorders

3. Liver Disorders

  • Hepatitis – inflammation of the liver due to contaminated drinking water, sexual transmission, or blood transfusion


Cirrhosis of liver

Cirrhosis of liver

  • Cirrhosis – chronic disease due to excessive amount of alcohol. Liver becomes fatty tissue.


Jaundice

Jaundice

  • Jaundice – yellowish tint due to large amounts of bilirubin in blood.


C gallbladder

C. Gallbladder

  • Storage of bile – emulsifies fats and neutralize acids


Chapter 21

Chapter 21

Excretory system


Structures of urinary system

Structures of Urinary System

  • 1. 2 kidneys

  • 2. 2 ureters – tube that leads to bladder

  • 3. Bladder – stores urine

  • 4. Urethra – tube for eliminating urine


Structure of kidney

Structure of Kidney

  • Renal cortex – outer layer, filtration

  • Renal medulla – middle layer, filtration, absorption

  • Renal pelvis – urine collection and transport

  • Renal artery -

  • Renal vein -


Functions of kidney

Functions of Kidney

I.


Kidney function filter blood that has collected wastes from cells

Kidney Function – filter blood that has collected wastes from cells.

  • A.Excrete waste – urea, uric acid, creatine, ammonium

  • B.Maintain blood volume – regulating water excretion

  • C.monitor electrolytes in blood

  • D.monitor blood pH

  • E.secrete Renin – enzyme to help maintain blood pressure

  • F.stimulates red blood cell production


Lipids1

Lipids

  • A group of polymers that have one characteristic in common, they do not mix with water. They are hydrophobic.

  • Some important groups are fats, phospholipids, and steroids.


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