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Chapter 1.3 Science as a Process. The Scientific Method. How exactly did someone discover bacteria? How do we know what we breathe? Why do scientists think that the universe started with a bang?. Scientific Method. The Scientific Method.

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the scientific method
The Scientific Method
  • How exactly did someone discover bacteria?
  • How do we know what we breathe?
  • Why do scientists think that the universe started with a bang?
the scientific method1
The Scientific Method
  • The scientific method is an organized approach to learn how the natural world works
  • It is a system that allows for logical process
  • It gives a framework to people who wish to discover, question or solve
the scientific method2
The Scientific Method
  • Observe
  • Hypothesis
  • Experiment
  • Analyze results
  • Draw conclusions
observing
Observing
  • Often considered the first step in the scientific method
  • Observations are bits of knowledge that are gathered from the outside world
observing1
Observing
  • Observations can be made anywhere by anybody
  • However scientists often use instruments to help them record their observations
example experiment
Example Experiment

Observation:

There seem to be more gnats buzzing around my head when I use Head and Shoulders

hypothesis
Hypothesis
  • A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for an observable phenomenon
  • In science a hypothesis is an idea that is backed by previous knowledge and data
hypothesis1
Hypothesis
  • It is very important for a hypothesis to be testable
  • An experiment should be able to prove or falsify a hypothesis
example experiment1
Example Experiment

Observation:

There seem to be more gnats buzzing around my head when I use Head and Shoulders

Hypothesis:If I used Head and Shoulders then gnats will be attracted to my hair

experiment
Experiment
  • Experiments are set up to test specific variables
  • These variables are the only things that should be tested in experiments
  • Experiments that test multiple variables will not get clear results
experiment1
Experiment
  • When conducting an experiment, scientists collect and record data
  • Once the experiment is completed scientists review the data
example experiment2
Example Experiment

Designing an Experiment:

We will expose gnats to the same human after he has washed his hair with Head and Shoulders and after no shampoo. The amount of gnats attracted to the hair will be recorded as data

analyzing results
Analyzing Results
  • Once data has been gathered it can be reviewed
  • The data has to be looked at without bias in order to get a fair assessment at what is going on
  • It often helps to compare the results of your experiment to other experiments of the same type
example experiment3
Example Experiment

Analyzing Results:

15 gnats of 100 were attracted to the hair when using Head and Shoulders

45 gnats of 100 were attracted to the hair when using no shampoo

drawing conclusions
Drawing Conclusions
  • Once the data has been analyzed, conclusions can be drawn from it
  • These conclusions can be then compared back to your hypothesis
  • They can prove or falsify your hypothesis
    • Having your hypothesis falsified does not make it a bad experiement
example experiment4
Example Experiment

Drawing Conclusions:

Since more gnats were attracted to the person with no shampoo, Heads and Shoulders does not attract gnats.

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