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Announcements. Switching lecture schedule: Move Pragmatics Unit to AFTER Bilingualism Unit to accommodate guest speaker on Nov. 27 th (Tuesday) If we have time after lecture today, we’ll discuss some posted questions. Psy1302 Psychology of Language. Language Acquisition I Lecture 17.

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announcements
Announcements
  • Switching lecture schedule:
    • Move Pragmatics Unit to AFTER Bilingualism Unit to accommodate guest speaker on Nov. 27th (Tuesday)
  • If we have time after lecture today, we’ll discuss some posted questions.
psy1302 psychology of language

Psy1302 Psychology of Language

Language Acquisition I

Lecture 17

language acquisition
Language Acquisition

[The acquisition of language] is doubtless the greatest intellectual feat any one of us is ever required to perform.

(L. Bloomfield, Language, 1933, p. 29)

reading assignment
Reading Assignment

Fisher & Gleitman (2002)

  • I. Outline of the task of language learning
  • II. Where language learning begins
    • Categorization of Speech Sounds
    • Segmentation of Spoken Word
    • Role of Sound in Syntactic Analysis
    • Distributional Analysis and Discovery of Syntax
  • II. Meanings
    • Primitive Categories of Experience
    • Compositional Meaning
    • Interactions between linguistic and conceptual categories
  • IV. Forms to meaning
    • Mapping problem
    • Concrete words first
    • Old words make new words easier to learn
  • V. Where learning ends
eimas et al s study
High Amplitude Sucking Procedure

What did this paradigm tell us about infants’ ability to discriminate speech sounds in the world’s languages?

Review: Where we left off for lectures on Speech Perception

Eimas et al.’s Study
werker et al s studies
Headturn Procedure

What did this paradigm tell us about when children lose discrimination ability of non-native phonemes

Review: Where we left off for lectures on Speech Perception

Werker et al.’s Studies
a new puzzle learning native phones
A New Puzzle: Learning Native Phones
  • How do children learn which phonetic sounds are the phonemes in their language?
    • For example (minimal pairs):
    • ‘bear” and “pear” or
    • “rent” and “lent” are two different words?
  • What information could children use to learn the phonemes of their native language???
one possibility semantic learning

A New Puzzle: Learning Native Phones

One Possibility: Semantic Learning
  • Learning word meanings drives phonological reorganization
  • Children notice changing some features changes meaning in some cases
    • /tip/ vs. /dip/
  • They also notice changing some features does not change meaning in some cases
    • /tip/ vs. /tip/ (Hindi contrast)

,

one possibility semantic learning1

A New Puzzle: Learning Native Phones

One Possibility: Semantic Learning
  • Learning word meanings drives phonological reorganization
  • For reorganization to work, requires:
    • Noticing minimal pairs and meaning differences
    • Learning many words
  • Problem: 10 months-old children don’t know that many words!
voice onset time

Review

Voice Onset Time
  • Production of words with /d/ or /t/ have different VOT
slide11

Dutch

Easter

Armenian

Spanish

Thai

Hungarian

Korean

Tamil

Hindi

Cantonese

Marathi

English

another possibility distributional learning

A New Puzzle: Learning Native Phones

Another Possibility: Distributional Learning
  • Distributional characteristics of input (i.e. speech of native speakers) provide cues to the phonemic categories
  • E.g. 2 clusters
maye werker gerken 2002 tested 6 8 months old1

A New Puzzle: Learning Native Phones

Maye, Werker, & Gerken (2002)(tested 6 & 8 months-old)
  • Familiarized infants to one of two sets
    • Bimodal Set: Sounds on the ends near [da] and [ta].
    • Unimodal Set: Sounds in the middle.
  • Test preference for:
    • 3 6 3 6… (Alternating) vs. 3 3 3 3… (Non-alternating) Stimuli
maye werker gerken 2002 tested 6 8 months old2

A New Puzzle: Learning Native Phones

Maye, Werker, & Gerken (2002)(tested 6 & 8 months-old)

3 3 3 3

3 6 3 6 …

=

=

<

<

Infants trained on the Bimodal had a novelty preference for non-alternating trials.

Infants trained on the Unimodal did not prefer/dis-prefer one over the other.

summary

A New Puzzle: Learning Native Phones

Summary
  • Infant’s initial lexicon is non-existent to small.
  • Makes it difficult to attribute lexical knowledge as source of initial phonological reorganization
  • Perhaps distributional information may be a first step into initial phonological reorganization
  • Learning the phonemes of one’s language could then help learn words & word meanings…
posting @ class discussion forum 10 12

A New Puzzle: Learning Native Phones

Posting @ Class Discussion Forum (10/12)

Digression

Minimal Pairs and Word Learning:

Notice anything about the ages tested in these papers and when the Werker paper says that sensitivity to non-native phones disappears? Want to comment?

Monolingual:

  • http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/10/071001172817.htm

Bilingual:

  • http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/09/070928092050.htm
the switch task

A New Puzzle: Learning Native Phones

The “Switch” Task

Digression

Habituation Phase Test Phase

Same Switch

“lif” “neem” “lif” “neem”

Werker, Cohen, Lloyd, Casasola, & Stager, Dev Psych, 1998

slide20

A New Puzzle: Learning Native Phones

Digression

The “Switch” Task Results

Werker, Cohen, Lloyd, Casasola, & Stager, Dev. Psych. 1998

switch task with minimal pairs

A New Puzzle: Learning Native Phones

Switch task with Minimal Pairs

Digression

Habituation Phase Test Phase

Same Switch

“bih” “dih” “bih” “dih”

Stager & Werker, Nature, 1997

switch task minimal pairs result

A New Puzzle: Learning Native Phones

Switch Task, Minimal Pairs Result

Digression

Stager & Werker, Nature, 1997, Werker, et al, Infancy, 2002; Pater, et al, Language, 2004

posting @ class discussion forum 10 121

A New Puzzle: Learning Native Phones

Posting @ Class Discussion Forum (10/12)

Digression

Minimal Pairs and Word Learning:

Notice anything about the ages tested in these papers and when the Werker paper says that sensitivity to non-native phones disappears? Want to comment?

Monolingual:

  • http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/10/071001172817.htm

Bilingual:

  • http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/09/070928092050.htm
word segmentation problem

Old Puzzle, But Yet Another Issue: Word Segmentation

Word segmentation problem
  • How do we as adults know where the word boundaries are located?
    • We make use of lexical knowledge.
word segmentation problem1

Old Puzzle, But Yet Another Issue: Word Segmentation

Word segmentation problem
  • What about infants who have none or few words in their lexicon?
word segmentation problem2

Old Puzzle, But Yet Another Issue: Word Segmentation

Word Segmentation Problem
  • Infants need to extract words from fluent speech in order to build a lexicon.
  • How???
    • Cues recruited for segmentations:
      • Rhythmic cues
        • Metrical Stress
      • Phonotactic cues
        • Context sensitive allophonic cues
      • Statistical distributional properties
        • Transitional Probabilities of Syllables
rhythmic cues

Old Puzzle, But Yet Another Issue: Word Segmentation

Rhythmic Cues

Rhythmic Cues – stress pattern

Stress Pattern in English:

Cutler & Norris (1988): 95% of disyllabic English words (actually heard) are Strong-Weak.

Common (Strong-Weak Stress): Button, Table

Rare (Weak-Strong Stress): Guitar, Surprise

  • Do (English) infants take strong-weak as cue for segmentation?
experimental setup
Experimental setup

http://psych.rice.edu/mmtbn/language/sPerception/infantHeadturn_h.html

rhythmic cues jusczyk houston newsome 1999

Old Puzzle, But Yet Another Issue: Word Segmentation

Rhythmic CuesJusczyk, Houston & Newsome (1999)

Rhythmic Cues – stress pattern

  • 7.5 & 10 month-old infants
    • familiarized to Word, and test preference for passage w/ over passage w/o target word
    • Familiarized to Word in Passage, and test preference for target word over another (novel) word
rhythmic cues jusczyk houston newsome 19991

Old Puzzle, But Yet Another Issue: Word Segmentation

Rhythmic CuesJusczyk, Houston & Newsome (1999)

Rhythmic Cues – stress pattern

  • 7.5 & 10 month-old infants familiarized to
    • Strong-Weak Word:
      • Kingdom… Kingdom… Kingdom…
  • Test on passages. Compare preference for passages w/ or w/o target word.

Kingdom passage

Yourkingdomis in a faraway place. The prince used to sail to thatkingdomwhen he came home from school. One day he saw a ghost in this oldkingdom…

Hamlet passage

Yourhamletlies just over the hill. Far away from here near the sea is an oldhamlet. People from thehamletlike to fish. Anotherhamletis in the country…

rhythmic cues jusczyk houston newsome 19992

Old Puzzle, But Yet Another Issue: Word Segmentation

Rhythmic CuesJusczyk, Houston & Newsome (1999)

Rhythmic Cues – stress pattern

  • 7.5 & 10 month-old infants familiarized to
    • Strong-Weak Word in passage:
      • Your kingdom is in a …
  • Test on words. Compare preference of target word and another word

Kingdom passage

Yourkingdomis in a faraway place. The prince used to sail to thatkingdomwhen he came home from school. One day he saw a ghost in this oldkingdom…

Hamlet passage

Yourhamletlies just over the hill. Far away from here near the sea is an oldhamlet. People from thehamletlike to fish. Anotherhamletis in the country…

7 5 months

Old Puzzle, But Yet Another Issue: Word Segmentation

7.5 months

Rhythmic Cues – stress pattern

S/W (strong-weak): kingdom

king

king

king

king

hear kingdom  parse as kingdom and not king

rhythmic cues jusczyk houston newsome 19993

Old Puzzle, But Yet Another Issue: Word Segmentation

Rhythmic CuesJusczyk, Houston & Newsome (1999)

Rhythmic Cues – stress pattern

  • 7.5 & 10 month-old infants familiarized to
    • Weak-Strong:
      • Guitar… Guitar… Guitar…
  • Test on passages. Compare preference for passages w/ or w/o target word.

Guitar passage

The man put away his oldguitar. Yourguitaris in the studio. That redguitaris brand new. The pinkguitaris mine….

Device passage

Your devicecan do a lot. Herdeviceonly fixes things. My new reddevicemakes ice cream. The pinkdevicesews clothes….

7 5 months1

Old Puzzle, But Yet Another Issue: Word Segmentation

7.5 months

Rhythmic Cues – stress pattern

W/S (weak-strong): guitar

tar

tar

guitar is

tar

guitar is

taris

hear “guitar”  parse as tar and not guitar

hear “guitar is”  parse as taris and not guitar or tar

10 months

Old Puzzle, But Yet Another Issue: Word Segmentation

10 months

Rhythmic Cues – stress pattern

W/S (weak-strong): guitar

tar

guitar is

taris

guitar is

Older children not as dependent on strong-weak strategy.

hear “guitar”  parse as guitar

rhythmic cues jusczyk houston newsome 19994

Old Puzzle, But Yet Another Issue: Word Segmentation

Rhythmic CuesJusczyk, Houston & Newsome (1999)

Rhythmic Cues – stress pattern

  • For SW: Both 7.5 & 10 month-olds gave the correct parse
  • For WS: Only the 10 month-olds gave the correct parse
  • Young (English-learning) infants rely on SW pattern for segmenting speech
phonotactics mattys jusczyk 2001

Old Puzzle, But Yet Another Issue: Word Segmentation

PhonotacticsMattys & Jusczyk (2001)

Phonotactic Cues

  • Headturn Preference Procedure again
  • 9 mos. familiarized to passage with 1 of 2

novel words

    • Gaffe
    • Tove
  • The novel words were either flanked by
    • good between-word cues or
    • bad between-word cues.

(e.g. /vt/ is rare within a word, but more common across words)

  • Test word in isolation (e.g. gaffe, gaffe, gaffe…)
phonotactics mattys jusczyk 20011

Old Puzzle, But Yet Another Issue: Word Segmentation

PhonotacticsMattys & Jusczyk (2001)

Rhythmic Cues – stress pattern

  • gaffe
  • tove
  • Words flanked by good between-word cues or bad between-word cues.
    • C CVC C

Novel word

Onset of

Another word

Offset of

Another word

statistical learning saffran aslin newport 1996

Old Puzzle, But Yet Another Issue: Word Segmentation

Statistical LearningSaffran, Aslin, & Newport (1996)

Syllable Transitional Probabilities

  • Transitional Probabilities of Syllables
    • Likelihood of a syllable (B) following another (A)
    • Probability of B given A

freq AB

freq A

pr B|A =

A

B

statistical learning

Old Puzzle, But Yet Another Issue: Word Segmentation

Syllable Transitional Probabilities

Statistical Learning

Syllable Transitional Probabilities

High likelihood

High likelihood

PRE TTYBA BY

Low likelihood

Continuations withinwords are systematic

Continuations betweenwords are arbitrary

transitional probabilities

Old Puzzle, But Yet Another Issue: Word Segmentation

Transitional probabilities

Syllable Transitional Probabilities

PRETTYBABY

(freq) pretty

(freq) pre

.80

versus

(freq) tyba

(freq) ty

.0002

statistical learning demo
Statistical Learning Demo

http://whyfiles.org/058language/images/baby_stream.aiff

slide44

tokibugikobagopilatipolutokibu

gopilatipolutokibugikobagopila

gikobatokibugopilatipolugikoba

tipolugikobatipolugopilatipolu

tokibugopilatipolutokibugopila

tipolutokibugopilagikobatipolu

tokibugopilagikobatipolugikoba

tipolugikobatipolutokibugikoba

gopilatipolugikobatokibugopila

slide45

tokibugikobagopilatipolutokibu

gopilatipolutokibugikobagopila

gikobatokibugopilatipolugikoba

tipolugikobatipolugopilatipolu

tokibugopilatipolutokibugopila

tipolutokibugopilagikobatipolu

tokibugopilagikobatipolugikoba

tipolugikobatipolutokibugikoba

gopilatipolugikobatokibugopila

statistical learning saffran aslin newport 19961

Old Puzzle, But Yet Another Issue: Word Segmentation

Statistical LearningSaffran, Aslin, & Newport (1996)

Syllable Transitional Probabilities

  • Headturn preference paradigm

Familiarization:

      • 2 minute exposure to an artificial language
        • 4 3 syllable words: tokibu, gopila, gikoba, tipolu
      • Synthesized speech.
        • Only statistical cues to word boundaries
        • No prosodic information, coarticulation cues

Tested isolated word and part-word (sequences spanning word boundaries)

slide47

tokibugikobagopilatipolutokibu

gopilatipolutokibugikobagopila

gikobatokibugopilatipolugikoba

tipolugikobatipolugopilatipolu

tokibugopilatipolutokibugopila

tipolutokibugopilagikobatipolu

tokibugopilagikobatipolugikoba

tipolugikobatipolutokibugikoba

gopilatipolugikobatokibugopila

slide48

tokibugikobagopilatipolutokibu

gopilatipolutokibugikobagopila

gikobatokibugopilatipolugikoba

tipolugikobatipolugopilatipolu

tokibugopilatipolutokibugopila

tipolutokibugopilagikobatipolu

tokibugopilagikobatipolugikoba

tipolugikobatipolutokibugikoba

gopilatipolugikobatokibugopila

slide49

Old Puzzle, But Yet Another Issue: Word Segmentation

Syllable Transitional Probabilities

Test: TOKIBU vs. BUGIKO

Part Word

Word

BU

BA

TO

GI

KI

KO

results

Old Puzzle, But Yet Another Issue: Word Segmentation

*

8

6

4

2

0

Words

Part-words

Results

Syllable Transitional Probabilities

Looking times (sec)

Infants can use statistical cues to find word boundaries

word segmentation problem3

Old Puzzle, But Yet Another Issue: Word Segmentation

Word Segmentation Problem
  • Infants need to extract words from fluent speech in order to build a lexicon.
  • Considerable evidence that this ability develops in infants between 7.5-10.5 months of age.
  • Cues recruited for segmentations:

Rhythmic cues

      • Metrical Stress

Phonotactic cues

      • Context sensitive allophonic cues

Statistical distributional properties

      • Transitional Probabilities of Syllables
word segmentation

Old Puzzle, But Yet Another Issue: Word Segmentation

Word Segmentation
  • Infants detect and make use of a variety of probabilistic cues to determine word boundaries
  • They do so to construct a lexicon, and make use of the cues even before attaching meanings to the words
  • Which cues are more potent?

Reliance on one cue over another will depend on:

    • The language being learned
    • Sophistication of the learner
is there long term retention of these extracted sound patterns

Old Puzzle, But Yet Another Issue: Word Segmentation

Is there long-term retention of these extracted sound patterns
  • Houston, Jusczyk and Tager (1998)
  • Familiarized 7.5 mo. old infants with a pair of words and tested them on passages with and without familiarized words after 24 hours.
  • Results: No difference b/w the infants tested with delay and without delay.
continued

Old Puzzle, But Yet Another Issue: Word Segmentation

Continued..
  • Jusczyk and Hohne (1997):8 month old infants heard audio versions of 3 stories for 2 weeks.
  • After 2 weeks, infants were tested on words and foils (matching phonetic characteristics and freq. of occurrence of words).
  • Infants who had heard the stories listened longer to the story words than the foils.
  • Control group: No preference
conclusion

Old Puzzle, But Yet Another Issue: Word Segmentation

Conclusion
  • Infants store information about sound patterns of lexical items even before they attach meaning to these words.
reading assignment1
Reading Assignment

Fisher & Gleitman (2002)

  • I. Outline of the task of language learning
  • II. Where language learning begins
    • Categorization of Speech Sounds
    • Segmentation of Spoken Word
    • Role of Sound in Syntactic Analysis
    • Distributional Analysis and Discovery of Syntax
  • II. Meanings
    • Primitive Categories of Experience
    • Compositional Meaning
    • Interactions between linguistic and conceptual categories
  • IV. Forms to meaning
    • Mapping problem
    • Concrete words first
    • Old words make new words easier to learn
  • V. Where learning ends
richie s posting @ class discussion forum
Richie’s Posting @ Class Discussion Forum
  • What types of explanations have been offered for why languages sound so different?
  • Similarly, what do psycholinguists predict about the future of languages? Do they see a convergence towards one language as technology makes geographical borders increasingly non-existent? What does the future of language hold for us?
courtney s posting @ class discussion forum
Courtney’s Posting @ Class Discussion Forum
  • If, when we speak, we produce sentences through the three steps we discussed in lecture on Tuesday, how are those steps manipulated, or how are they upheld, when we "speak" to ourselves? How do we go from the semantic to the articulatory stage when we are reading aloud? I know I\'ve made incorrect "articulations," or at least word assumptions when reading. Does this mean that when we do make mistakes in speaking (through exchanges, anticipation, etc.) that the error occurs not in the physical articulation but in the mental processing stage?
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