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Gender, Poverty, and Health: A Framework for Analysis. C. Mark Blackden Office of the Sector Director Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Africa Region, World Bank August 21, 2002. Gender & Poverty. Poverty is multidimensional

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Gender poverty and health a framework for analysis
Gender, Poverty, and Health:A Framework for Analysis

C. Mark Blackden

Office of the Sector Director

Poverty Reduction and Economic Management

Africa Region, World Bank

August 21, 2002


Gender poverty
Gender & Poverty

  • Poverty is multidimensional

    • beyond income poverty: loss of rights & dignity, powerlessness inequality, vulnerability, isolation

    • assets: livelihood security

      • Gender inequality in access to and control of assets--impact on growth

  • Impact of povertydifferentfor men and for women


  • A Different Poverty Agenda = Better Health Outcomes

  • Roles of Men and Women

    • in the market economy

    • in the household economy

  • Gender-based asset inequality


Gender roles who does what
Gender Roles:Who Does What?

I


MARKET

Labor Segmentation

Key Characteristics

MONETIZED

ECONOMY

PREDOMINANTLY

MALE

GOVERNED

BY LAW

Gender Roles: 1

Agriculture

Industry, Services

Informal Sector

What do men and women contributeto the market economy (GDP)?


Uganda gender intensity of production
Uganda: Gender Intensity of Production

Source: Based on Elson and Evers 1997.


Gender roles 2

HOUSEHOLD

Labor Immobility

Valued at 30-50%

of GDP

Key Characteristics

UNPAID NON-

MONETIZED

PREDOMINANTLY

FEMALE

GOVERNED

BY CUSTOM

Gender Roles: 2

Fuel and water provisioning

Child care & health

Food preparation

What do men and women contribute to the household economy?


The double workday of women
The “Double Workday” of Women

Source: Benin --Time Allocation Study, UNDP, 1998


Zambia transport tasks
Zambia: Transport Tasks

Domestic Travel Time (%)

Women Men Other

96 1 3

18%

63%

19%

2.35 hours per adult female per day

Source: Christina Malmberg-Calvo. 1994, Women in Rural Transport … SSTP Working Paper No. 11. World Bank and ECA.


Asset inequality or the gender dimensions of poverty
Asset Inequality(or the gender dimensionsof poverty)

II


Capability adult illiteracy
Capability: Adult Illiteracy

Source: World Development Indicators, 2001.


Capability enrollments
Capability: Enrollments

Source: UNICEF, The State of the World’s Children, 2001.


Opportunity income shares
Opportunity: Income Shares

Source: Fofack, in Blackden and Bhanu, 1999.


Security access to water
Security: Access to Water

Source: www.unicef.org/statis (2000).


Empowerment men and women in parliament
Empowerment: Men and Women in Parliament

Source: International Parliamentary Union, 2001. www.ipu.org.


Changes in HIV/AIDS Prevalence Rates by Age (15-24) and Gender, Selected SSA Countries 1999-2001

HIV/AIDS Prevalence Rates by Age (15-24) and Gender, Selected SSA Countries

Sources: For 2001: UNAIDS, Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic, 2002. For 1999: UNAIDS Country Data Files, June 2000. www.unaids.org

Source: UNAIDS, June 2000.

Source: UNAIDS, June 2000.


Policy implications for poverty reduction and health sector strategies
Policy Implications Gender, Selected SSA Countries 1999-2001 for Poverty Reduction and Health Sector Strategies

III


Key policy implications 1
Key Policy Implications: 1 Gender, Selected SSA Countries 1999-2001

  • Because, in gendered economies, disparitiespersist in men’s and women’s access to and control of human, economic, and social assets …

  • … gender-based inequalitylimits economic growth and diminishes the effectiveness of poverty reduction efforts.


Gender inequality and economic growth
Gender inequality and economic growth Gender, Selected SSA Countries 1999-2001

  • Cameroon: Rice vs. Sorghum

    Women do not control the income from rice production, and prefer the less remunerative task of sorghum production where they control the income. Total household income is lower than it could be.

  • Burkina Faso: Agricultural ProductionKey inputs (fertilizer and manure) are unevenly distributed.

    IF existing resources were shifted between men’s and women’s plots, output up by 10-20 %


Closing the gender gap in schooling boosts economic growth
Closing the gender gap in schooling boosts economic growth Gender, Selected SSA Countries 1999-2001

4

Actual growth rate

Projected growth rate

3

(percent)

Average annual growth in

per capita GNP, 1960-1992

2

1

0

Sub-Saharan Africa

South Asia

Middle East/North Africa

Source: “Engendering Development” (PRR) 2001,

in WDR 2000/01, “Attacking Poverty”.


Key policy implications 2
Key Policy Implications: 2 Gender, Selected SSA Countries 1999-2001

  • HouseholdEconomy - significance

    • Double workday: 5+ additional hours/day for women in domestic tasks

    • Low labor productivity,highly energy-intensive, inefficient

  • Health Implications

    • Head-loading, fatigue,

    • Environmental factors

  • Interdependence with market

    • Trade-offs and linkages very important


Interdependent

MARKET Gender, Selected SSA Countries 1999-2001

HOUSEHOLD

Labor Segmentation

Labor Immobility

Valued at 30-50%

of GDP

Key Characteristics

Key Characteristics

MONETIZED

ECONOMY

PREDOMINANTLY

MALE

GOVERNED

BY LAW

UNPAID NON-

MONETIZED

PREDOMINANTLY

FEMALE

GOVERNED

BY CUSTOM

Interdependent …

GENDER DIVISION OF LABOR

ACCESS & CONTROL

OF RESOURCES

LABOR SUPPLY


Invisible

MARKET Gender, Selected SSA Countries 1999-2001

Labor Segmentation

Key Characteristics

MONETIZED

ECONOMY

PREDOMINANTLY

MALE

GOVERNED

BY LAW

Invisible?


Key policy implications 3
Key Policy Implications: 3 Gender, Selected SSA Countries 1999-2001

  • Because the poor, especially women, have little or no voice in decision making …

  • …gender needs to be a criterion forinclusion in poverty reduction initiatives, and

  • a criterion forprioritizing policy and investment choices


A different agenda for gender responsive poverty reduction and health sector strategies
A Gender, Selected SSA Countries 1999-2001Different Agenda for Gender-Responsive Poverty Reduction and Health Sector Strategies

IV


En gender ing priority actions 1
En Gender, Selected SSA Countries 1999-2001gendering Priority Actions: 1

  • Gender as criterion for inclusiveparticipation in setting poverty reduction policy and investment priorities:

    • “gender budget initiatives”

    • inclusion in policy fora (PRSP)

    • local-level audit & accountability

  • Gender as criterion for prioritizing economic policy and investmentchoices:

    • pro-poorgrowth with focus on agriculture & informal sector

    • reorient research/extension, financial services, production & labor-saving technology


En gender ing priority actions 2
En Gender, Selected SSA Countries 1999-2001gendering Priority Actions: 2

  • Concurrent investment in gender-inclusive human development:

    • education, literacy, vocational skills

    • health, nutrition, fertility

    • grassroots management training

  • Concurrent investment in the household economy--highly relevant for poverty reduction, growth, and for health:

    • water/sanitation, domesticenergy, transport (IMT), & labor-saving technology


Different transport burdens tonne km year by sex
Different Transport Burdens Gender, Selected SSA Countries 1999-2001(Tonne-Km/Year by Sex)

Source: Christina Malmberg-Calvo. 1994, Women in Rural Transport … SSTP Working Paper No. 11. World Bank and ECA.


Investments in water and fuel infrastructure significantly reduce time on collection activities

Water and fuel investments Gender, Selected SSA Countries 1999-2001significantly reduce collection time

Investments in water and fuel infrastructure significantly reduce time on collection activities

Potential average annual time savings

Potable water within 400m

600

Woodlots within 30 mins walk

400

Annual time savings (hours per household)

200

0

Lusaka Rural

Kaya

Mbale

Kasama*

Dedougou*

(Zambia)

(Burkina Faso)

(Uganda)

(Zambia)

(Burkina Faso)

* Kasama & Dedougou already within the target for water.

Source: Barwell 1996, in Engendering Development, PRR, 2001.


En gender ing priority actions 3
En Gender, Selected SSA Countries 1999-2001gendering Priority Actions: 3

  • Integrate gender into statistics, national accounts & poverty work (make gender VISIBLE!)

    • intra-household modules in surveys

    • gendered economic production data

    • gender-based benefit incidence analysis of public expenditures

    • integrate household (care) economy into statistics and accounts

    • country-specific time surveys


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