Astrophysics from Space
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 21

Astrophysics from Space Lecture 2: Beating the atmosphere PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 79 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Astrophysics from Space Lecture 2: Beating the atmosphere. Prof. Dr. M. Baes (UGent) Prof. Dr. C. Waelkens (KUL) Academic year 2013-2014. The Earth atmosphere. Lord Rayleigh (1842-1919). The Earth atmosphere.

Download Presentation

Astrophysics from Space Lecture 2: Beating the atmosphere

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Astrophysics from space lecture 2 beating the atmosphere

Astrophysics from Space

Lecture 2: Beating the atmosphere

Prof. Dr. M. Baes (UGent)

Prof. Dr. C. Waelkens (KUL)

Academic year 2013-2014


Astrophysics from space lecture 2 beating the atmosphere

The Earth atmosphere

Lord Rayleigh (1842-1919)


Astrophysics from space lecture 2 beating the atmosphere

The Earth atmosphere

Relative concentrations of permanent gases in the atmosphere is relatively constant.

Non-permanent gases: H20 and O3


Astrophysics from space lecture 2 beating the atmosphere

Water vapor in the atmosphere

H20 (and CO2 to some extent) are responsible for most of the extinction in the optical and NIR regime

Good news: H20 is low-altitude phenomenon


Astrophysics from space lecture 2 beating the atmosphere

Mauna Kea – Hawaii


Astrophysics from space lecture 2 beating the atmosphere

La Silla – Chile


Astrophysics from space lecture 2 beating the atmosphere

Paranal – Chile


Astrophysics from space lecture 2 beating the atmosphere

Optical observatories

Most large ground-based optical/NIR observatories are located on mountain tops


Astrophysics from space lecture 2 beating the atmosphere

Diffraction of light

Diffraction is a natural consequence of the wave nature of light.

Airy diffraction pattern


Astrophysics from space lecture 2 beating the atmosphere

Diffraction of light

Airy diffraction: point sources are converted to a disc (Airy disc) with size θmin ~ 1.22 λ/D

Example:

VLT with D = 8.2 moptical radiation at λ = 550 nm

θmin = 0.014 arcsec

Unfortunately, it is currently impossible to realize diffraction limited observations in the optical, due to optical aberrations in the telescope and atmospheric turbulence.


Astrophysics from space lecture 2 beating the atmosphere

Active optics

Elimination of the aberrations in the telescope optics by (continuous) correction of the telescope shape.

Result: seeing-limited observations


Astrophysics from space lecture 2 beating the atmosphere

Atmospheric turbulence

Atmospheric turbulence spreads out optical radiation to a much bigger disk (seeing disc) than the diffraction limit.The seeing depends critically on the site.

Typical seeing values:

Belgium: few arcsecLa Palma: 1 arcsec

Paranal: 0.6 arcsec

Dome C: 0.3 arcsec


Astrophysics from space lecture 2 beating the atmosphere

Atmospheric turbulence

=

In seeing-limited observing, the 8 m VLT telescope has the same resolution as an amateur 30 cm telescope


Astrophysics from space lecture 2 beating the atmosphere

Beating the atmosphere

Seeing is the result of “speckles” moving on the plane of the sky at atmospheric time scales 10 ms to 100 ms


Astrophysics from space lecture 2 beating the atmosphere

Speckle imaging and Lucky imaging

Use very fast, short-exposure images and combine them at the end of the observation- Speckle imaging: combine all images

- Lucky imaging: select only the “best” images

Traditional image

Exposure time 300s

Speckle imageExposure time 300s

Lucky image

Exposure time 15s


Astrophysics from space lecture 2 beating the atmosphere

More Lucky imaging examples

Cat’s Eye nebula

Globular cluster M13


Astrophysics from space lecture 2 beating the atmosphere

Adaptive optics

1. Measure the distortions in the wavefront

2. Compensate for them using deformable mirror or liquid crystal array


Astrophysics from space lecture 2 beating the atmosphere

Adaptive optics

Advantage of AO: one can keep integrating(so not limited to bright sources as speckle/Lucky imaging)

Problem: bright reference star necessary: NGS/LGS


Astrophysics from space lecture 2 beating the atmosphere

Adaptive optics


Astrophysics from space lecture 2 beating the atmosphere

Adaptive optics

Still many problems

- Reliable LGS AO systems are still rare…

- Atmospheric conditions must be optimal for AO

- Turbulence cells are typically smaller than telescope

-> multi-conjugate AO


Astrophysics from space lecture 2 beating the atmosphere

The solution: space telescopes


  • Login