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Case Study: SPINAL CORD INJURY. Cueto, Cunanan, Dadgardoust, Daguman, Damo, David, H., David, H., De Guzman, J., De Guzman, R., De Leon, De Mesa, De Vera, Dela Cruz, C., Dela Cruz, F., Dela Cruz, I., Dela Rosa. Salient Features. excruciating pain

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case study spinal cord injury

Case Study:SPINAL CORD INJURY

Cueto, Cunanan, Dadgardoust, Daguman, Damo, David, H., David, H., De Guzman, J., De Guzman, R., De Leon, De Mesa, De Vera, Dela Cruz, C., Dela Cruz, F., Dela Cruz, I., Dela Rosa

salient features
Salient Features
  • excruciating pain
  • could not move his trunk and lower extremities immediately after hitting his head on the floor of the pool (sustained neuromuscular injury)
  • MMT
    • normal muscular strength (5/5) on both elbow flexor
    • moderate resistance (4/5)on both elbow extensors
    • both finger flexors can perform full range of motion with gravity eliminated (2/5)
    • trace muscle contraction (1/5) of both finger extensors
    • no muscle contraction (0/5) on both lower extremities (hip flexor, knee extensor, ankle dorsiflexor, long toe extensor, and ankle plantar flexor)
salient features1
Salient Features

- 80% sensory deficit from little fingers for pinprick (fast pain) and light touch bilaterally

- normal muscle stretch reflexes (MSR) on both upper extremities

- absent muscle stretch reflexes on both lower extremities

Imaging: fracture dislocation of C7 to C8

neurologic level
NEUROLOGIC LEVEL
  • Most caudal neurologic segment of the SC that retains normal sensory & motor function in both sides of the body
  • PE must record most caudal sensory and motor level on each side
  • Key muscles/ dermatomes should be tested on each side (10 myotomes,28 dermatomes/side)
  • Muscles are graded 0-5 (rostral to caudal)
    • MOTOR SCORE (max: 50/ side)
  • Sensory : light touch/pinprick score: 0-2
    • SENSORY SCORE (max: 56/ side)
neurologic level1
NEUROLOGIC LEVEL
  • RECTAL EXAM – sensation in mucocutaneous region
  • COMPLETE LESION – absence of sensory/motor function in the lowest sacral segments
  • INCOMPLETE LESION – either sensory/motor function is preserved (SACRAL SPARING)
in the patient
In the Patient
  • Sensory:
    • 80% sensory deficit from little fingers for both pinprick & light touch bilaterally
  • MSRs: ++ (B) UE

0 (B)

  • (-) Bulocavernosus reflex
  • Xray: C7-8 fracture dislocation
slide10

Neurological level:

MOTOR

5

5

4

2

1

5

5

4

2

1

C7

C7

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

No

slide11

Neurological level:

SENSORY

  • maximum: 56/side, 112/bilateral
  • 80% sensory deficit from little fingers for both pinprick & light touch bilaterally
slide12

C7

C7

C7

C7

slide15

5

5

5

5

4

4

2

2

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

slide16

5

5

5

5

4

4

2

2

1

1

34

17

17

slide17

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

slide18

2

2

2

2

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

33

33

66

33

33

66

feeding and grooming
Feeding and Grooming
  • Ability to feed self independently during mealtimes. Food may need cutting.
  • Able to make hot drinks , may require an adapted kettle using a "kettle tipper".
  • Independent in upper body showering and dressing, lower body dressing and showering may need assistance.
  • Independent in grooming, usually without palm straps.
upper extremity dressing
Upper Extremity dressing
  • Independent in upper body showering and dressing
  • Easier to dress upper body while in wheelchair
  • Some methods will be easier if you have

good shoulder strength and relatively good balance

  • Independent in oral/facial hygiene
lower extremity dressing
Lower extremity dressing
  • lower body dressing and showering may need some assistance
  • May need help with bladder care (e.g. intermittent catheterization)
  • Shower chair is needed for safe bathing
  • Rectal stimulation for bowel movement
bed mobility
Bed Mobility
  • Independence in bed mobility transfers
  • May benefit from full electric hospital bed or full to king standard bed
transfer
Transfer

- ability to transfer independently (bed to chair, chair to car)

- car transfers may need assistance depending on upper body strength (transfer board)

- may require assistance moving over uneven surfaces

wheelchair propulsion
Wheelchair Propulsion

Manual wheelchair : independent

propulsion in the community

( short distances of flat surfaces)

Electrical wheelchair : for long independent travel or uneven outdoor surfaces (going over curbs)

standing
Standing
  • Independent in standing (standing frame)
  • May need some assistance depending on body strength
ambulation
Ambulation
  • Independent level surface transfers (although they may require assistance with moving over uneven surfaces)
  • Wheelchair use outdoors (power chair for school and work)
  • Manual wheelchair propulsion in the community (with the exception of going over curbs)
  • Propel chair (curbs and wheelies)
  • Wheelchair-to-car transfers
functional independence measurement fim
Functional Independence measurement (FIM)
  • The FIMTM instrument refers to a scale that is used to measure one\'s ability to function with independence
  • score is collected within 72 hours after admission to the rehabilitation unit, within 72 hours before discharge, and between 80 to 180 days after discharge.
  • score ranges from 1 to 7, with 1 (Total Assistance) being the lowest possible score and 7 (Complete Independence) being the best possible score.
slide35

Keith RA, Granger CV, Hamilton BB, et al. The functional independence measure: a new tool for rehabilitation. Adv Clin Rehabil. 1987;1:6-18.

slide36

Keith RA, Granger CV, Hamilton BB, et al. The functional independence measure: a new tool for rehabilitation. Adv Clin Rehabil. 1987;1:6-18.

5 what is spinal shock how will you know when an sci patient is out of spinal shock already
5. What is spinal shock? How will you know when an SCI patient is out of spinal shock already
spinal shock
Spinal Shock
  • Phenomena surrounding physiologic or anatomic transection of the spinal cord that results in temporary loss or depression of all or most spinal reflex activity below the level of the injury.
  • Reflex arcs above level of injury may be severely depressed  Schiff-Sherrington phenomenon
  • Hypotension due to loss of sympathetic tone is a possible complication
  • Mechanism of injury that causes spinal shock is usually traumatic in origin
  • Flaccid paralysis (bowel and bladder) and occasionally, sustained priapism develops
slide40

End of the spinal shock phase of spinal cord injury is signaled by the return of elicitable abnormal cutaneospinal, bulbocavernosus reflex or muscle spindle reflex arcs

phases of spinal shock
Phases of Spinal Shock

PHASE 1

  • Characterized by a complete loss -- or weakening -- of all reflexes below the SCI.
  • The neurons involved in various reflex arcs normally receive a basal level of excitatory stimulation from the brain.
  • After an SCI, these cells lose this input, and the neurons involved become hyperpolarized and therefore less responsive to stimuli.
phases of spinal shock1
Phases of Spinal Shock

PHASE 2

  • Characterized by the return of some, but not all, reflexes below the SCI. The first reflexes to reappear are polysynaptic in nature, such as the bulbocavernosus reflex.
  • Restoration of reflexes is not rostral to caudal as previously (and commonly) believed, but instead proceeds from polysynaptic to monosynaptic. The reason reflexes return is the hypersensitivity of reflex muscles following denervation -- more receptors for neurotransmitters are expressed and are therefore easier to stimulate.
phases of spinal shock2
Phases of Spinal Shock

PHASE 3

  • Monosynaptic reflexes, such as the deep tendon reflexes, are not restored until Phase 3.
  • Phases 3 and 4 are characterized by hyperreflexia, or abnormally strong reflexes usually produced with minimal stimulation.
  • Interneurons and lower motor neurons below the SCI begin sprouting, attempting to re-establish synapses. The first synapses to form are from shorter axons, usually from interneurons.
phases of spinal shock3
Phases of Spinal Shock

PHASE 4

  • is soma-mediated, and as it takes longer for axonal transport to push growth factors and proteins from soma to the end of the axon, it takes longer.
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