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The Industrial Revolution. French Economic Disadvantages. Years of war Supported the American Revolution. French Revolution. Early 19c  Napoleonic Wars Heavy debts. High unemployment  soldiers returning from the battlefronts. French businessmen were afraid to take risks. Why Did

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The Industrial Revolution

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French Economic Disadvantages

  • Years of war

    • Supported the AmericanRevolution.

    • French Revolution.

    • Early 19c  Napoleonic Wars

  • Heavy debts.

  • High unemployment  soldiersreturning from the battlefronts.

  • French businessmen were afraid to take risks.

Why Did


Begin in

England First?

Industrial England:


of the World"

That Nation of Shopkeepers! -- Napoleon Bonaparte

The Enclosure Movement

“Enclosed” Lands Today

Metals, Woolens, & Canals

Early Canals

Britain’s Earliest Transportation Infrastructure

Mine & Forge [1840-1880]

  • More powerful than water is coal.

  • More powerful than wood is iron.

  • Innovations make steel feasible.

Coalfields & Industrial Areas

Coal Mining in Britain:1800-1914

Young Coal Miners

Child Labor in the Mines

Child “hurriers”

British Pig Iron Production

Richard Arkwright:“Pioneer of the Factory System”

The “Water Frame”

Factory Production

  • Concentrates production in oneplace [materials, labor].

  • Located near sources of power [rather than labor or markets].

  • Requires a lot of capital investment[factory, machines, etc.] morethan skilled labor.

  • Only 10% of English industry in 1850.

Textile FactoryWorkers in England

The Factory System

  • Rigid schedule.

  • 12-14 hour day.

  • Dangerous conditions.

  • Mind-numbing monotony.

Textile FactoryWorkers in England

Young “Bobbin-Doffers”

New Inventions

of the

Industrial Revolution

Jacquard’s Loom

John Kay’s “Flying Shuttle”

The Power Loom

James Watt’s Steam Engine

Steam Tractor

Steam Ship

An Early Steam Locomotive

Later Locomotives

The Impact of the Railroad

“The Great Land Serpent”

Crystal Palace Exhibition: 1851

Exhibitions of the new industrial utopia.

Crystal Palace: Interior Exhibits

Crystal Palace:British Ingenuity on Display

Crystal Palace:American Pavilion

The "Haves":

Bourgeois Life

Thrived on the

Luxuries of the

Industrial Revolution

19c Bourgeoisie: The Industrial Nouveau Riche

Criticism of the New Bourgeoisie

Stereotype of the Factory Owner

“Upstairs”/“Downstairs” Life

The "Have-Nots":

The Poor,

The Over-Worked,

& the Destitute

Factory Wages in Lancashire, 1830

Industrial Staffordshire

Problems of Polution

The Silent Highwayman - 1858

The New Industrial City

Early-19c Londonby Gustave Dore

Worker Housing in Manchester

Factory Workers at Home

Protests / Reformers

The Luddites: 1811-1816

Attacks on the “frames” [power looms].

Ned Ludd [a mythical figure supposed to live in Sherwood Forest]

The Luddites

The Neo-Luddites Today

Peterloo Massacre, 1819

BritishSoldiers Fire on BritishWorkers:Let us die like men, and not be sold like slaves!

The Chartists

The “Peoples’ Charter”

  • Drafted in 1838 by William Lovett.

  • Radical campaign for Parliamentary reform of the inequalities created by the Reform Bill of 1832.

  • Votes for all men.

  • Equal electoral districts.

  • Abolition of the requirement that Members of Parliament [MPs] be property owners.

  • Payment for Members of Parliament.

  • Annual general elections.

  • The secret ballot.

The Chartists

A female Chartist

A physical force—Chartists arming for the fight.

New Ways



Thomas Malthus

  • Population growth willoutpace the food supply.

  • War, disease, or faminecould control population.

  • The poor should have less children.

  • Food supply will then keep up with population.

The Utilitarians:Jeremy Bentham & John Stuart Mill

  • The goal of society is the greatest good for the greatest number.

  • There is a role to play for government intervention to provide some social safetynet.

The Socialists:Utopians & Marxists

  • People as a society would operate and own themeans of production, not individuals.

  • Their goal was a society that benefited everyone, not just a rich, well-connected few.

  • Tried to build perfect communities [utopias].

Br. Govt. Response

to the Dislocation

Created by


Government Response

  • Abolition of slavery in the coloniesin 1832 [to raise wages in Britain].

  • Sadler Commissionto look intoworking conditions

    • Factory Act[1833] – child labor.

  • New Poor Law [1834] – indoor relief.

    • Poor houses.

  • Reform Bill[1832] – broadens thevote for the cities.

British Reform Bills

The Results of


at the end of the 19c

By 1850: Zones of Industrializationon the European Continent

  • Northeast France.

  • Belgium.

  • The Netherlands.

  • Western German states.

  • Northern Italy

  • East Germany  Saxony

Industrialization By 1850

Railroads on the Continent

Share in World Manufacturing Output: 1750-1900

Bibliographic Sources

  • “Images of the Industrial Revolution.”Mt. Holyoke College.

  • “The Peel Web: A Web of English History.”

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