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The Industrial Revolution. French Economic Disadvantages. Years of war Supported the American Revolution. French Revolution. Early 19c  Napoleonic Wars Heavy debts. High unemployment  soldiers returning from the battlefronts. French businessmen were afraid to take risks. Why Did

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The Industrial Revolution

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The industrial revolution

The

Industrial

Revolution


The industrial revolution

French Economic Disadvantages

  • Years of war

    • Supported the AmericanRevolution.

    • French Revolution.

    • Early 19c  Napoleonic Wars

  • Heavy debts.

  • High unemployment  soldiersreturning from the battlefronts.

  • French businessmen were afraid to take risks.


The industrial revolution

Why Did

Industrialization

Begin in

England First?


The industrial revolution

Industrial England:

"Workshop

of the World"

That Nation of Shopkeepers! -- Napoleon Bonaparte


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The Enclosure Movement


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“Enclosed” Lands Today


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Metals, Woolens, & Canals


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Early Canals

Britain’s Earliest Transportation Infrastructure


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Mine & Forge [1840-1880]

  • More powerful than water is coal.

  • More powerful than wood is iron.

  • Innovations make steel feasible.


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Coalfields & Industrial Areas


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Coal Mining in Britain:1800-1914


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Young Coal Miners


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Child Labor in the Mines

Child “hurriers”


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British Pig Iron Production


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Richard Arkwright:“Pioneer of the Factory System”

The “Water Frame”


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Factory Production

  • Concentrates production in oneplace [materials, labor].

  • Located near sources of power [rather than labor or markets].

  • Requires a lot of capital investment[factory, machines, etc.] morethan skilled labor.

  • Only 10% of English industry in 1850.


The industrial revolution

Textile FactoryWorkers in England


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The Factory System

  • Rigid schedule.

  • 12-14 hour day.

  • Dangerous conditions.

  • Mind-numbing monotony.


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Textile FactoryWorkers in England


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Young “Bobbin-Doffers”


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New Inventions

of the

Industrial Revolution


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Jacquard’s Loom


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John Kay’s “Flying Shuttle”


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The Power Loom


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James Watt’s Steam Engine


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Steam Tractor


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Steam Ship


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An Early Steam Locomotive


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Later Locomotives


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The Impact of the Railroad


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“The Great Land Serpent”


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Crystal Palace Exhibition: 1851

Exhibitions of the new industrial utopia.


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Crystal Palace: Interior Exhibits


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Crystal Palace:British Ingenuity on Display


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Crystal Palace:American Pavilion


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The "Haves":

Bourgeois Life

Thrived on the

Luxuries of the

Industrial Revolution


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19c Bourgeoisie: The Industrial Nouveau Riche


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Criticism of the New Bourgeoisie


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Stereotype of the Factory Owner


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“Upstairs”/“Downstairs” Life


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The "Have-Nots":

The Poor,

The Over-Worked,

& the Destitute


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Factory Wages in Lancashire, 1830


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Industrial Staffordshire


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Problems of Polution

The Silent Highwayman - 1858


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The New Industrial City


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Early-19c Londonby Gustave Dore


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Worker Housing in Manchester


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Factory Workers at Home


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Protests / Reformers


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The Luddites: 1811-1816

Attacks on the “frames” [power looms].

Ned Ludd [a mythical figure supposed to live in Sherwood Forest]


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The Luddites


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The Neo-Luddites Today


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Peterloo Massacre, 1819

BritishSoldiers Fire on BritishWorkers:Let us die like men, and not be sold like slaves!


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The Chartists


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The “Peoples’ Charter”

  • Drafted in 1838 by William Lovett.

  • Radical campaign for Parliamentary reform of the inequalities created by the Reform Bill of 1832.

  • Votes for all men.

  • Equal electoral districts.

  • Abolition of the requirement that Members of Parliament [MPs] be property owners.

  • Payment for Members of Parliament.

  • Annual general elections.

  • The secret ballot.


The industrial revolution

The Chartists

A female Chartist

A physical force—Chartists arming for the fight.


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New Ways

of

Thinking


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Thomas Malthus

  • Population growth willoutpace the food supply.

  • War, disease, or faminecould control population.

  • The poor should have less children.

  • Food supply will then keep up with population.


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The Utilitarians:Jeremy Bentham & John Stuart Mill

  • The goal of society is the greatest good for the greatest number.

  • There is a role to play for government intervention to provide some social safetynet.


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The Socialists:Utopians & Marxists

  • People as a society would operate and own themeans of production, not individuals.

  • Their goal was a society that benefited everyone, not just a rich, well-connected few.

  • Tried to build perfect communities [utopias].


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Br. Govt. Response

to the Dislocation

Created by

Industrialization


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Government Response

  • Abolition of slavery in the coloniesin 1832 [to raise wages in Britain].

  • Sadler Commissionto look intoworking conditions

    • Factory Act[1833] – child labor.

  • New Poor Law [1834] – indoor relief.

    • Poor houses.

  • Reform Bill[1832] – broadens thevote for the cities.


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British Reform Bills


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The Results of

Industrialization

at the end of the 19c


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By 1850: Zones of Industrializationon the European Continent

  • Northeast France.

  • Belgium.

  • The Netherlands.

  • Western German states.

  • Northern Italy

  • East Germany  Saxony


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Industrialization By 1850


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Railroads on the Continent


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Share in World Manufacturing Output: 1750-1900


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Bibliographic Sources

  • “Images of the Industrial Revolution.”Mt. Holyoke College. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/rschwart/ind_rev/images/images-ind-era.html

  • “The Peel Web: A Web of English History.”http://dspace.dial.pipex.com/mbloy/c-eight/primary.htm


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