Organic chemistry
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H. H. H. H. C. C. C. H. H. H. H. C. C. H. C. H. H. H. C. H. O. C. H. H. H. C. C. H. H. C. H. C. C. C. H. H. H. H. H. H. H. Organic Chemistry. Compare and contrast inorganic and organic chemistry. Describe the structural characteristics of carbon.

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Organic Chemistry

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Organic chemistry

H

H

H

H

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

C

C

H

C

H

H

H

C

H

O

C

H

H

H

C

C

H

H

C

H

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

Organic Chemistry


Organic chemistry

  • Compare and contrast inorganic and organic chemistry.

  • Describe the structural characteristics of carbon.

  • Name, draw, and construct structural models of alkanes

  • Include: branchedalkanes, structuralisomers

  • Additional KEY Terms

  • distillationsaturated


Organic chemistry

  • Carbon is 1% of all elements found on Earth.

  • Chemicals are either organic and inorganic.

  • 13 million known compounds only 100 000 are classified as inorganic.

  • Organic:

  • All carbon containing covalent compounds.

  • Except: CO, CO2, CS2, and all ionic carbon compounds.

  • Plastics, all fuels, drugs, rubber, clothes, carbohydrates, fats and proteins (anything alive).


Organic chemistry

Naturally occurring organic compounds are made of decomposed animals and plants – FOSSIL FUELS.

Petroleum(Latin -‘petra’ (rock) and ‘oleum’ (oil) )

crude oil

Industrial distillationis the process of using boiling pointto separate crude oil into organic compounds.

Items made from oil are called petro- products.


Organic chemistry

C1 to C6

C6 to C15

C15 to C18

C18 to C24


Organic chemistry

Typical Distillation Towers at Shell oil refineries


Organic chemistry

A carbon atom has four valence electrons.

It will form 4 covalent bonds to fill valence shell

Hydrogen only needs to form 1 covalent bond (1e-)

H

H

The simplest organic compounds contain only single

covalent bonds.

C

H

H

Methane CH4


Organic chemistry

Alkanes

· distinguished by C-C single covalent bonds

· general formula Cn H2n+2

· considered saturated(all single bonds)

Propane

C3H8

H

H

H

C - C - C

H

H

Methane CH4

H

H

H


Organic chemistry

Propane

C3H8

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

C - C - C

H

H

H

H

H


Organic chemistry

IUPAC Naming

International Union of Pure And Applied Chemistry


Organic chemistry

Longest continuous carbon chain is the parentchain.

Parent chain is named as the number of carbons and suffix “ane”

MethaneCH4

EthaneCH3CH3

PropaneCH3CH2CH3

ButaneCH3CH2CH2CH3

PentaneCH3CH2CH2CH2CH3

HexaneCH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

HeptaneC7H16OctaneC8H18

NonaneC9H20DecaneC10H22


Organic chemistry

C3H8MolecularFormula

CH3CH2CH3Condensed Formula

C – C – C Carbon Skeleton

CH3 – CH2 – CH3Structural Formula

Complete Structural

H

H

H

C - C - C

H

H

H

H

H


Organic chemistry

Draw all the formula types for pentane.

C5H10Molecular

CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3Condensed

C – C – C – C – C Carbon Skeleton

CH3 – CH2 – CH2 – CH2 – CH3Structural

Complete


Organic chemistry

C8H18Molecular

CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3Condensed

C – C – C – C – C – C – C – CSkeleton

CH3 – CH2 – CH2 – CH2 – CH2 – CH2 – CH2 –CH3Structural

Complete

Draw all the formula types for octane.

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

C - C - C - C - C - C - C - C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H


Organic chemistry

  • CAN YOU / HAVE YOU?

  • Compare and contrast inorganic and organic chemistry.

  • Describe the structural characteristics of carbon.

  • Name, draw, and construct structural models of alkanes

  • Include: branchedalkanes, structuralisomers

  • Additional KEY Terms

  • distillationsaturated


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