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Health Care Systems. Where it all began…. Warm-up. What does it mean to be healthy (think of all aspects of health)? List 4 specific examples. LEQ. What do you think is the most significant difference between ancient and current medical practices?. Who said it?.

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Health Care Systems

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Health Care Systems

Where it all began…


Warm-up

  • What does it mean to be healthy (think of all aspects of health)?

    • List 4 specific examples.


LEQ

  • What do you think is the most significant difference between ancient and current medical practices?


Who said it?

  • “Fresh air, exercise, and healthy food”as a prescription for good health

  • HIPPOCRATES

    • All about Hippocrates

  • The father of Western Medicine advised these practices to both prevent and cure illness

The History of Surgery


Native Americans

  • Used hundreds of different plants to treat illness.

  • Some methods are used today in the form of herbal therapy.


What is this?????

A Caduceus

Where did it originate from?


The Caduceus…

  • Asclepius was the Greek god of healing, and people went to his temple to pray for cures.

  • His symbol was the snake.

  • In time, priest healers adopted the symbol of Asclepius.

  • It is believed that this symbol evolved into an insignia called the caduceus.

  • Today it is the symbol for the physician.


TIMELINE

  • Working together as a class, create 1 timeline which incorporates all 5 eras

    • You must include all contributions during your time period

    • You must include a visual for each contribution

    • BE NEAT & CREATIVE

    • You may reference the timeline on pages 26-27

    • Be ready to present individually on your assigned area


Extra Credit – this never happens!

e Tues 10/4/12

  • Select 2 of the 5 time periods and identify 1 historical event from each which has an effect on medicine today (it may not be one listed in the book)


Answer LEQ

  • What do you think is the most significant difference between ancient and current medical practices?


Warm-up

  • Although technology is constantly improving, there will always be concepts that we wish we could improve upon in the health care field.

  • What do you wish that technology could “resolve” in the near future? Explain in a brief paragraph.


LEQ

  • What is the most significant ERA for the medical field? Why?


What is the Doctor’s Code of Ethics?

  • It is rooted in ancient Greek history

  • Hippocrates practiced and taught medicine around 400 B.C.

  • He and his students left behind manuscripts advising doctors on treatment of patients

  • They followed a strict ethical code where they swore they would maintain privacy for the patient and never deliberately cause harm

  • This code of ethics, the Hippocratic Oath, continues today!


The Timeline

  • 1500 B.C. Egyptian Papyrus (written scroll)

  • 1200 B.C. Asclepius Greek God of Healing (son of Apollo)

    • Caduceus is the symbol for medicine

  • 410-350 B.C. Greek Book of Epidemics

  • 400 B.C. Hippocratic Oath

    • Prehistoric Medicine


Middle Ages

  • 200 Galen; tracheotomy

    • Barber-surgeons cut hair, perform surgery; barber pole symbol popularized

    • Medical Milestones

  • 900 Rhazes discovered difference between

    smallpox and measles

    • Medical care becomes regulated

  • 1300 Islamic hospitals; health care for the sick

    • Christian monasteries founded to treat the ill

  • 1400 Frenchwoman Jacoba Felicie tries to practice

    medicine but is denied


RenaissanceRenaissance Medicine

  • 1500’s - Printing press allows for publication of discoveries

  • 1600 - Use of scientific method begins (DISPROVES ILLNESS ON SUPERNATURAL EVENTS!)

  • 1665 - Robert Hooke built one of the first reflective microscopes

  • 1673 - Antonievan Leeuwenhoek identifies bacteria using microscope

  • 1700 - Francis Bacon uses microscope to discover plague fleas


Warm-up

  • Is fast food to blame for obesity? Why or why not? DEFEND your answer! Be prepared to debate 


Industrial Revolution

  • 1796 - Edward Jenner discovered 1st vaccine

    • Injected people with fluid of cowpox to protect against smallpox

    • Discovery of blood, cells, bacteria, protozoa, and stethoscope

  • 1822-1895 - Louis Pasteur (microbiology)

    • Pasteurization of milk

    • History of Pasteurization

  • 1827-1912 Joseph Lister - practice of medical asepsis (disinfecting surgical equipment / hand washing to prevent infections)

    • Reduced # of deaths from surgeries

  • 1843-1910 Robert Koch - discovered pathogens

    • Medical Advances during the Industrial Revolution


Answer LEQ

  • What is the most significant ERA for the medical field? Why?


Vocabulary

  • Please define the vocabulary in all of chapter 2 in your own words – draw a picture reflecting each definition.

  • LEQ - What is the purpose of health care systems?


Activity

  • Work on your health care systems objectives worksheet. You may work quietly with a partner but do your own work. You will get half of the class to complete this.


Warm-up

  • How can medical care be more accessible to those who need it? And at what cost? Propose a plan you think would be effective.


LEQ

  • How have advancements within the last century improved our quality of life?


1847 - Ignaz Semmelweis shows importance of hand washing

1854 - John Snow stops outbreak of cholera

1897-1904 - Marie Curie discovers science of radioactivity

1900-1909 - Bubonic Plague hits San Francisco

Industrial Revolution continued...


Modern World

  • Discovery of organ transplants, X-rays, radium for cancer treatment, MRI, CAT scans

  • 1928-1945 - Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin

  • 1930-1960 - First HMO Insurance

  • 1952 - Salk discovers polio vaccine


Modern World continued…

  • 1980 - WHO declares smallpox eradicated

  • 1980-1998 - Managed health care; growth in uninsured

  • 1981-1986 - AZT is used to combat AIDS

  • In vitro fertilization for infertile couples

  • 2001 - Steve Thomas used sterile maggots for infectious wound treatment

    • Maggot Therapy


Answer LEQ

  • How have advancements within the last century improved our quality of life?


Write about it!

  • Explain the most memorable “medical” experience you have had. It may be a positive or negative memory!


LEQ

  • What do you think would be the most efficient way to make health care more affordable in our country? Why?


Technology

Just a few decades ago…

  • Computerized technology for noninvasive diagnosis of soft tissue diseases/injuries did not exist

  • No ultrasound technology for examining the heart, blood vessels, uterus, or other cavities

  • Radiology was limited to only taking X-rays

  • Polio crippled thousands of children

  • Limited cancer treatment (Tx)


Technology

  • The first mobile phone was “as small as a briefcase”

  • Miniaturization in technology significantly helps the medical field

    • WHY?

  • Medical history with mobile access

  • Downside is advancements = money!


Answer LEQ

  • What do you think would be the most efficient way to make health care more affordable in our country? Why?


Warm-up

  • What is the difference between a right and a privilege?

  • Give an example of each (doesn’t have to be related to medical field)


LEQ

  • Why is preventative medicine more cost effective than treating illnesses?


Debate

  • Right vs. privilege examples, situations

  • Written response to 2 scenarios


Preventative Medicine & Wellness

  • Fitness movement of the 1980s

  • Link between exercise, diet, and good health has gained much more notice

    • Opposed to what?

  • Aging baby boomers, physicians, insurance companies, and fitness experts realize value of good health


Answer LEQ

  • Why is preventative medicine more cost effective than treating illnesses?


Warm-up

  • What do YOU personally do to stay healthy?

  • What else could you do to enhance your health?


LEQ

  • What are the main components of personal responsibility for wellness?


Hospital Wellness Centers

  • 1990s - hospitals began to shift their focus from sick care to health care

  • Began to develop wellness / fitness centers (catered older population and their needs)

  • Clinical services are important component and they offer cardiac rehabilitation, pulmonary rehabilitation, occupational medicine, sports medicine, clinical weight management, physical therapy


What else do they offer??

  • Wellness programs for patients with chronic diseases (arthritis, diabetes, osteoporosis, neuromuscular disorders)

  • Includes exercise programs

  • Includes screenings for diseases such as breast, cervical, and prostate cancer, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol


Personal Responsibility for Wellness

  • Fitness- maintain good health and preventing illnesses

  • Preventative Care- immunizations / screenings

  • Spiritual health- beliefs, standards/morals, purpose in life

  • Safety- learn and use safety prevention tips

  • Nutrition- eat right to guard against illness

  • Tackling tobacco addictions

  • Stress management- cope with everyday stress


Activity

  • In groups of 4, create a program that Appoquinimink High School can offer to enhance preventative wellness for YOU!

    • Topics include fitness, preventative care, spiritual health, safety, nutrition, tobacco addictions, stress management

  • What is it? What will it cost? Who are you targeting? How will you implement it? Create a commercial advertising your program.

  • Each person must have a speaking role, must be 1 minute long


Answer LEQ

  • What are the main components of personal responsibility for wellness?


Warm-up

  • After the announcements, get with your group for the commercials. You have 10 minutes to quietly work on finalizing them, then be ready to present!


Grading

  • Speak loudly and confidently

  • Accurate information

  • Is longer than 1 minute


Reflection

  • Write about each of the 7 topics.

  • Which ideas do you think would work that were presented?

  • Which ideas did you not like? How would you change it?

  • At least 2 pages, double-spaced


Personal Responsibility for Wellness

  • Fitness- maintain good health and preventing illnesses

  • Preventative Care- immunizations / screenings

  • Spiritual health- beliefs, standards/morals, purpose in life

  • Safety- learn and use safety prevention tips

  • Nutrition- eat right to guard against illness

  • Tackling tobacco addictions

  • Stress management- cope with everyday stress


Warm-up

  • List as many places as you can where “health” needs are met. Think outside the box!


LEQ

  • Where can patients receive medical care?


Aging Population

  • Why is the average age of population rising?

  • 1946-1964 (Baby boom era) High employment, large families

  • 2000 - 35 million people 65+yrs

  • 2030- that number is expected to double!

    • Why?


Underinsured and Uninsured

  • About 42 Million people in the US (or 16% percent of the population) do not have health insurance

  • Some employees have limited coverage with large deductibles or co-payments


Ambulatory Care & Outpatient Surgery

  • Look up ambulatory in your book! Page 37

  • Enabled by technology, research, and new medications

  • Cost significantly reduced due to patient not needing a place to stay over night


Home Health Care

  • Become more common in late 1980s

  • Hospitals were paid a flat fee according to diagnosis or set by DRGs

  • Diagnosis Related Groups: groups of procedures / tests related to a diagnosis that are likely to be covered. (ex: lump sum instead of itemized costs)

  • This led to home health care to limit costs

  • Benefits?


Health Care Facilities

  • Hospitals

    • Ran by religious organizations

    • Private Hospitals

    • Nonprofit Hospitals

    • Hospitals run by government organizations

    • Specialized Hospitals

  • Long-Term Care

    • Residents: Patients that live there for rest of life

    • Assisted Living Center: separate living quarters while providing meals & housekeeping

    • Activities of daily living: tasks the patients can perform on their own (cleaning, cooking, etc)


Facilities continued…

  • Practitioners’ Offices (many health fields)

  • Clinics (practitioners share space / staff)

  • Laboratories: perform tests on blood and other bodily fluids

  • Emergency Medical Services

    EMS (Ambulance)

  • Home Health Care


There’s more…

  • Rehabilitation (regain physical or mental abilities)

  • Hospice (for terminally ill)


Activity

  • In groups of 3-4, create a skit promoting your assigned health care facility.

  • You may use pg 39 in your book for guidance.

  • Requirements:

    • Must be 1 minute long

    • What is it? Who goes there? What services are provided?

    • Be creative! Make them fun!

    • Will present to the class, vote for best one 


Answer LEQ

  • Where can patients receive medical care?


Warm-up

  • You may finalize your skits for 5 minutes. Be ready to present!


LEQ

  • What are the different health agencies?


Health Care Agencies

  • Government Agencies

    • Local Health Departments

    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: national agency that deal with US health

      • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: CDC monitors & prevents disease outbreaks

      • Food and Drug Administration: FDA ensures the safety of foods, cosmetics, medications & medical devices

      • National Institutes of Health: NIH is world’s premier medical research organization

    • World Health Organization: WHO is the international agency sponsored by the United Nations and is the authority on international health


More agencies…

  • Volunteer and Nonprofit health agencies

    • American Lung Association (ALA)

    • March of Dimes

    • American Heart Association (AHA)


Health Insurance

  • Group Insurance: employer pays all or part of the premium as a benefit

  • Medicare: nation’s largest insurance program

  • Medicaid: insurance for low income people

  • Managed Care: designed specifically to control costs

  • Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) focus on prevention / wellness care

  • Workers’Compensation: covers accidents, injuries or diseases that occur at work

  • Military Health Care for families of current military


Answer LEQ

  • What are the different health agencies?


Warm-up

  • Study quietly for 8 minutes. We will play SALAD BOWL to review if it is quiet.


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