Health care systems
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Health Care Systems. Where it all began…. Warm-up. What does it mean to be healthy (think of all aspects of health)? List 4 specific examples. LEQ. What do you think is the most significant difference between ancient and current medical practices?. Who said it?.

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Health care systems

Health Care Systems

Where it all began…


Warm up

Warm-up

  • What does it mean to be healthy (think of all aspects of health)?

    • List 4 specific examples.


Health care systems

LEQ

  • What do you think is the most significant difference between ancient and current medical practices?


Who said it

Who said it?

  • “Fresh air, exercise, and healthy food”as a prescription for good health

  • HIPPOCRATES

    • All about Hippocrates

  • The father of Western Medicine advised these practices to both prevent and cure illness

The History of Surgery


Native americans

Native Americans

  • Used hundreds of different plants to treat illness.

  • Some methods are used today in the form of herbal therapy.


What is this

What is this?????

A Caduceus

Where did it originate from?


The caduceus

The Caduceus…

  • Asclepius was the Greek god of healing, and people went to his temple to pray for cures.

  • His symbol was the snake.

  • In time, priest healers adopted the symbol of Asclepius.

  • It is believed that this symbol evolved into an insignia called the caduceus.

  • Today it is the symbol for the physician.


Timeline

TIMELINE

  • Working together as a class, create 1 timeline which incorporates all 5 eras

    • You must include all contributions during your time period

    • You must include a visual for each contribution

    • BE NEAT & CREATIVE

    • You may reference the timeline on pages 26-27

    • Be ready to present individually on your assigned area


Extra credit this never happens

Extra Credit – this never happens!

e Tues 10/4/12

  • Select 2 of the 5 time periods and identify 1 historical event from each which has an effect on medicine today (it may not be one listed in the book)


Answer leq

Answer LEQ

  • What do you think is the most significant difference between ancient and current medical practices?


Warm up1

Warm-up

  • Although technology is constantly improving, there will always be concepts that we wish we could improve upon in the health care field.

  • What do you wish that technology could “resolve” in the near future? Explain in a brief paragraph.


Health care systems

LEQ

  • What is the most significant ERA for the medical field? Why?


What is the doctor s code of ethics

What is the Doctor’s Code of Ethics?

  • It is rooted in ancient Greek history

  • Hippocrates practiced and taught medicine around 400 B.C.

  • He and his students left behind manuscripts advising doctors on treatment of patients

  • They followed a strict ethical code where they swore they would maintain privacy for the patient and never deliberately cause harm

  • This code of ethics, the Hippocratic Oath, continues today!


The timeline

The Timeline

  • 1500 B.C. Egyptian Papyrus (written scroll)

  • 1200 B.C. Asclepius Greek God of Healing (son of Apollo)

    • Caduceus is the symbol for medicine

  • 410-350 B.C. Greek Book of Epidemics

  • 400 B.C. Hippocratic Oath

    • Prehistoric Medicine


Middle ages

Middle Ages

  • 200 Galen; tracheotomy

    • Barber-surgeons cut hair, perform surgery; barber pole symbol popularized

    • Medical Milestones

  • 900 Rhazes discovered difference between

    smallpox and measles

    • Medical care becomes regulated

  • 1300 Islamic hospitals; health care for the sick

    • Christian monasteries founded to treat the ill

  • 1400 Frenchwoman Jacoba Felicie tries to practice

    medicine but is denied


Renaissance renaissance medicine

RenaissanceRenaissance Medicine

  • 1500’s - Printing press allows for publication of discoveries

  • 1600 - Use of scientific method begins (DISPROVES ILLNESS ON SUPERNATURAL EVENTS!)

  • 1665 - Robert Hooke built one of the first reflective microscopes

  • 1673 - Antonievan Leeuwenhoek identifies bacteria using microscope

  • 1700 - Francis Bacon uses microscope to discover plague fleas


Warm up2

Warm-up

  • Is fast food to blame for obesity? Why or why not? DEFEND your answer! Be prepared to debate 


Industrial revolution

Industrial Revolution

  • 1796 - Edward Jenner discovered 1st vaccine

    • Injected people with fluid of cowpox to protect against smallpox

    • Discovery of blood, cells, bacteria, protozoa, and stethoscope

  • 1822-1895 - Louis Pasteur (microbiology)

    • Pasteurization of milk

    • History of Pasteurization

  • 1827-1912 Joseph Lister - practice of medical asepsis (disinfecting surgical equipment / hand washing to prevent infections)

    • Reduced # of deaths from surgeries

  • 1843-1910 Robert Koch - discovered pathogens

    • Medical Advances during the Industrial Revolution


Answer leq1

Answer LEQ

  • What is the most significant ERA for the medical field? Why?


Vocabulary

Vocabulary

  • Please define the vocabulary in all of chapter 2 in your own words – draw a picture reflecting each definition.

  • LEQ - What is the purpose of health care systems?


Activity

Activity

  • Work on your health care systems objectives worksheet. You may work quietly with a partner but do your own work. You will get half of the class to complete this.


Warm up3

Warm-up

  • How can medical care be more accessible to those who need it? And at what cost? Propose a plan you think would be effective.


Health care systems

LEQ

  • How have advancements within the last century improved our quality of life?


Industrial revolution continued

1847 - Ignaz Semmelweis shows importance of hand washing

1854 - John Snow stops outbreak of cholera

1897-1904 - Marie Curie discovers science of radioactivity

1900-1909 - Bubonic Plague hits San Francisco

Industrial Revolution continued...


Modern world

Modern World

  • Discovery of organ transplants, X-rays, radium for cancer treatment, MRI, CAT scans

  • 1928-1945 - Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin

  • 1930-1960 - First HMO Insurance

  • 1952 - Salk discovers polio vaccine


Modern world continued

Modern World continued…

  • 1980 - WHO declares smallpox eradicated

  • 1980-1998 - Managed health care; growth in uninsured

  • 1981-1986 - AZT is used to combat AIDS

  • In vitro fertilization for infertile couples

  • 2001 - Steve Thomas used sterile maggots for infectious wound treatment

    • Maggot Therapy


Answer leq2

Answer LEQ

  • How have advancements within the last century improved our quality of life?


Write about it

Write about it!

  • Explain the most memorable “medical” experience you have had. It may be a positive or negative memory!


Health care systems

LEQ

  • What do you think would be the most efficient way to make health care more affordable in our country? Why?


Technology

Technology

Just a few decades ago…

  • Computerized technology for noninvasive diagnosis of soft tissue diseases/injuries did not exist

  • No ultrasound technology for examining the heart, blood vessels, uterus, or other cavities

  • Radiology was limited to only taking X-rays

  • Polio crippled thousands of children

  • Limited cancer treatment (Tx)


Technology1

Technology

  • The first mobile phone was “as small as a briefcase”

  • Miniaturization in technology significantly helps the medical field

    • WHY?

  • Medical history with mobile access

  • Downside is advancements = money!


Answer leq3

Answer LEQ

  • What do you think would be the most efficient way to make health care more affordable in our country? Why?


Warm up4

Warm-up

  • What is the difference between a right and a privilege?

  • Give an example of each (doesn’t have to be related to medical field)


Health care systems

LEQ

  • Why is preventative medicine more cost effective than treating illnesses?


Debate

Debate

  • Right vs. privilege examples, situations

  • Written response to 2 scenarios


Preventative medicine wellness

Preventative Medicine & Wellness

  • Fitness movement of the 1980s

  • Link between exercise, diet, and good health has gained much more notice

    • Opposed to what?

  • Aging baby boomers, physicians, insurance companies, and fitness experts realize value of good health


Answer leq4

Answer LEQ

  • Why is preventative medicine more cost effective than treating illnesses?


Warm up5

Warm-up

  • What do YOU personally do to stay healthy?

  • What else could you do to enhance your health?


Health care systems

LEQ

  • What are the main components of personal responsibility for wellness?


Hospital wellness centers

Hospital Wellness Centers

  • 1990s - hospitals began to shift their focus from sick care to health care

  • Began to develop wellness / fitness centers (catered older population and their needs)

  • Clinical services are important component and they offer cardiac rehabilitation, pulmonary rehabilitation, occupational medicine, sports medicine, clinical weight management, physical therapy


What else do they offer

What else do they offer??

  • Wellness programs for patients with chronic diseases (arthritis, diabetes, osteoporosis, neuromuscular disorders)

  • Includes exercise programs

  • Includes screenings for diseases such as breast, cervical, and prostate cancer, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol


Personal responsibility for wellness

Personal Responsibility for Wellness

  • Fitness- maintain good health and preventing illnesses

  • Preventative Care- immunizations / screenings

  • Spiritual health- beliefs, standards/morals, purpose in life

  • Safety- learn and use safety prevention tips

  • Nutrition- eat right to guard against illness

  • Tackling tobacco addictions

  • Stress management- cope with everyday stress


Activity1

Activity

  • In groups of 4, create a program that Appoquinimink High School can offer to enhance preventative wellness for YOU!

    • Topics include fitness, preventative care, spiritual health, safety, nutrition, tobacco addictions, stress management

  • What is it? What will it cost? Who are you targeting? How will you implement it? Create a commercial advertising your program.

  • Each person must have a speaking role, must be 1 minute long


Answer leq5

Answer LEQ

  • What are the main components of personal responsibility for wellness?


Warm up6

Warm-up

  • After the announcements, get with your group for the commercials. You have 10 minutes to quietly work on finalizing them, then be ready to present!


Grading

Grading

  • Speak loudly and confidently

  • Accurate information

  • Is longer than 1 minute


Reflection

Reflection

  • Write about each of the 7 topics.

  • Which ideas do you think would work that were presented?

  • Which ideas did you not like? How would you change it?

  • At least 2 pages, double-spaced


Personal responsibility for wellness1

Personal Responsibility for Wellness

  • Fitness- maintain good health and preventing illnesses

  • Preventative Care- immunizations / screenings

  • Spiritual health- beliefs, standards/morals, purpose in life

  • Safety- learn and use safety prevention tips

  • Nutrition- eat right to guard against illness

  • Tackling tobacco addictions

  • Stress management- cope with everyday stress


Warm up7

Warm-up

  • List as many places as you can where “health” needs are met. Think outside the box!


Health care systems

LEQ

  • Where can patients receive medical care?


Aging population

Aging Population

  • Why is the average age of population rising?

  • 1946-1964 (Baby boom era) High employment, large families

  • 2000 - 35 million people 65+yrs

  • 2030- that number is expected to double!

    • Why?


Underinsured and uninsured

Underinsured and Uninsured

  • About 42 Million people in the US (or 16% percent of the population) do not have health insurance

  • Some employees have limited coverage with large deductibles or co-payments


Ambulatory care outpatient surgery

Ambulatory Care & Outpatient Surgery

  • Look up ambulatory in your book! Page 37

  • Enabled by technology, research, and new medications

  • Cost significantly reduced due to patient not needing a place to stay over night


Home health care

Home Health Care

  • Become more common in late 1980s

  • Hospitals were paid a flat fee according to diagnosis or set by DRGs

  • Diagnosis Related Groups: groups of procedures / tests related to a diagnosis that are likely to be covered. (ex: lump sum instead of itemized costs)

  • This led to home health care to limit costs

  • Benefits?


Health care facilities

Health Care Facilities

  • Hospitals

    • Ran by religious organizations

    • Private Hospitals

    • Nonprofit Hospitals

    • Hospitals run by government organizations

    • Specialized Hospitals

  • Long-Term Care

    • Residents: Patients that live there for rest of life

    • Assisted Living Center: separate living quarters while providing meals & housekeeping

    • Activities of daily living: tasks the patients can perform on their own (cleaning, cooking, etc)


Facilities continued

Facilities continued…

  • Practitioners’ Offices (many health fields)

  • Clinics (practitioners share space / staff)

  • Laboratories: perform tests on blood and other bodily fluids

  • Emergency Medical Services

    EMS (Ambulance)

  • Home Health Care


There s more

There’s more…

  • Rehabilitation (regain physical or mental abilities)

  • Hospice (for terminally ill)


Activity2

Activity

  • In groups of 3-4, create a skit promoting your assigned health care facility.

  • You may use pg 39 in your book for guidance.

  • Requirements:

    • Must be 1 minute long

    • What is it? Who goes there? What services are provided?

    • Be creative! Make them fun!

    • Will present to the class, vote for best one 


Answer leq6

Answer LEQ

  • Where can patients receive medical care?


Warm up8

Warm-up

  • You may finalize your skits for 5 minutes. Be ready to present!


Health care systems

LEQ

  • What are the different health agencies?


Health care agencies

Health Care Agencies

  • Government Agencies

    • Local Health Departments

    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: national agency that deal with US health

      • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: CDC monitors & prevents disease outbreaks

      • Food and Drug Administration: FDA ensures the safety of foods, cosmetics, medications & medical devices

      • National Institutes of Health: NIH is world’s premier medical research organization

    • World Health Organization: WHO is the international agency sponsored by the United Nations and is the authority on international health


More agencies

More agencies…

  • Volunteer and Nonprofit health agencies

    • American Lung Association (ALA)

    • March of Dimes

    • American Heart Association (AHA)


Health insurance

Health Insurance

  • Group Insurance: employer pays all or part of the premium as a benefit

  • Medicare: nation’s largest insurance program

  • Medicaid: insurance for low income people

  • Managed Care: designed specifically to control costs

  • Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) focus on prevention / wellness care

  • Workers’Compensation: covers accidents, injuries or diseases that occur at work

  • Military Health Care for families of current military


Answer leq7

Answer LEQ

  • What are the different health agencies?


Warm up9

Warm-up

  • Study quietly for 8 minutes. We will play SALAD BOWL to review if it is quiet.


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