Adverbs introdu o aos sintagmas de l ngua inglesa prof fl via cunha
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Adverbs Introdução aos Sintagmas de Língua Inglesa Profª. Flávia Cunha PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Adverbs Introdução aos Sintagmas de Língua Inglesa Profª. Flávia Cunha. What are adverbs?. Adverbs are words that modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs Many adverbs end with ly Many adverbs answer the question “How?” These are adverbs Eating quickly ( modifying a verb)

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Adverbs Introdução aos Sintagmas de Língua Inglesa Profª. Flávia Cunha

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Adverbs introdu o aos sintagmas de l ngua inglesa prof fl via cunha

AdverbsIntrodução aosSintagmas de LínguaInglesaProfª. Flávia Cunha


What are adverbs

What are adverbs?

  • Adverbs are words that modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs

  • Many adverbs end with ly

  • Many adverbs answer the question “How?”

  • These are adverbs

    • Eating quickly (modifying a verb)

    • Trying very hard (modifying an adverb)

    • A really big show (modifying an adjective)


Adverbs introdu o aos sintagmas de l ngua inglesa prof fl via cunha

  • An adverb answers these questions:

  • Where?

  • How? In what manner? When?

  • To what extent? To what degree?

    • Manner: fast, bravely, etc

    • Place: here, there

    • Time: now, how, today

    • Frequency: always, never, occasionally, often, etc

    • Degree: hardly, rather, quite


And adverbs modify

And… Adverbs Modify

  • Verbs: Place the adverb before or after the verb that is modified.

  • Adjectives: Place the adverb immediately before the adjective.

  • Adverbs:Place the adverb immediately before the adverb being modified.


Adding ly

Adding ly

  • Add ly to an adjective root to form the majority of adverbs.

  • E.g. slow

    slowly


Don t use adjectives when adverbs are needed

Don’t use adjectives when adverbs are needed

  • You did a real nice job

    • (an adjective can’t modify another adjective)

  • You did a really nice job

    • (the adverb “really” modifies “nice”)

  • He did good

  • He did well or

  • He did a good job

    • Fuel injection helps the car run efficient

  • Fuel injection helps the car run efficiently

    • Come quick!

  • Come quickly!

    • Hopefully, it won’t rain

      • (an adverb explains how something will happen

  • Ihope that it won’t rain


  • Don t use needless adverbs

    Don’t use needless adverbs

    • Before using any of these words, check to see if they add anything to the sentence

      • Really, very, absolutely, extremely, quite, actually, somewhat, rather

      • I am really happy to see you

      • Grammar is very boring

      • You are absolutely correct

      • Her language was extremely crude

      • You are quite intelligent

    • Context will help you decide whether to retain the underlined words


    Misplaced modifiers

    Misplaced Modifiers

    • Put adjectives and adverbs close to the words they modify

    • Notice how the meaning is affected by the improper placement

      • An old pile of clothes is on the floor

    • A pile of old clothes is on the floor

      • I almost believe you are finished

    • I believe you are almost finished

      • The winners will only be contacted

    • Only the winners will be contacted

      • I can’t quite do this as well as Fred

    • I can’t do this quite as well as Fred


    Adverbs of frequency

    Adverbs of Frequency

    • Adverbials: Specific or general?

    • I exercise every day.

    • I exercise every now and then.


    Negative or positive

    Negative or Positive?

    • Research done by Klima (1964): Affirmative preverbal adverbs co-occurs with a negative tag question and vice versa. Negative preverbal adverbs co-occurs with an affirmative tag question and vice versa.

      • Ana Carolina always misses class, doesn’t she?

        • Affirmative preverbal adverb

      • Sandra never goes to the library, does she?

        • Negative preverbal adverb


    Negative constituent fronting with preverbal adverbs

    Negative constituent Fronting (with preverbal adverbs)

    • Never have I seen such a handsome guy!

    • Never have I eaten so much food!

      • Speaker typically must be expressing an exclamation of sorts. If not, the change is ungrammatical or unacceptable.

        • John has never washed his socks.

        • ? Never has John washed his socks.


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