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Summary of Lecture 1. Introduction to Earth’s atmosphere origin composition structure comparison with other planets Stefan’s law. Solar and Terrestrial Radiation. Sun ~ 6000 K UV/vis λ max ~0.6 μ m Solar flux =1370 Wm -2 S (1- α )/4= σ T E 4 Earth ~ 255 K IR λ max ~ 12 μ m.

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summary of lecture 1
Summary of Lecture 1
  • Introduction to Earth’s atmosphere
    • origin
    • composition
    • structure
    • comparison with other planets
  • Stefan’s law
solar and terrestrial radiation
Solar and Terrestrial Radiation
  • Sun ~ 6000 K
  • UV/vis λmax~0.6μm
  • Solar flux =1370 Wm-2
  • S (1-α)/4=σTE4
  • Earth ~ 255 K
  • IR λmax~ 12μm
uv absorption

DUV

UVb

UVa /

Visible

InfraRed

UVc

UV absorption
notes
Notes:
  • Surface has Ts=288 K and radiates σTs4 = 400 Wm-2(117 units).
  • Atmosphere at 250 K radiates 220 Wm-2 (64 units), both up and down.
  • 30% of surface radiation is reflected by the atmosphere (32 units), giving a total downward flux of 96 units.
  • Non-radiative flux of 100 Wm-2 (30 units) drives the atmospheric circulation and weather
slide12

Global Climate

Net short, long and global radiation entering and leaving the top of our atmosphere measured by satellite.

Data are from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE)

slide15

JFM 2002 is clearly

the warmest ever

Temperature rise °C

Global temperatures 1860-2001

slide18

Change in extent of Arctic sea ice

Arctic sea ice extent, million km2

slide24

700

600

500

400

350

Carbon dioxide concentration

in the atmosphere, due to three emissions scenarios

Business as usual emissions

Constant 1990 emissions

50% reduction in emissions

CO2 concentration ppm

global temperature rise
Global temperature rise

IPCC A1FI emissions

A2 emissions

B2 emissions

B1 emissions

Global temperature rise, degrees C

slide26

Hadley Centre

Components of sea-level rise

temperature rise

winter

summer

Hadley Centre

Hadley Centre

°C

Temperature rise

Medium-high emissions scenario, 2080s

pattern of annual precipitation changes 2080s relative to present day

Met Office / Hadley Centre

A1FI emissions scenario

3

2

1

0.5

0.25

0

0.25

0.5

1

2

3

Pattern of annual precipitation changes2080s relative to present day
slide31

Change in surface temperature

with forced THC collapse, but without change in greenhouse gases

Hadley Centre

Deg C

carbon cycle
Carbon Cycle
  • photosynthesis

respiration

predicted temperature rise
Predicted temperature rise
  • Assuming current levels of CO2 emission
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