Manoa valley ahupua a
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Manoa Valley Ahupua’a. An Ahupua’a is a natural land division, which is bordered by streams from Mauka to Makai. Typical Ahupua’a. Ohana: Family Life. Hawaiian tradition recognizes that people are descendants of the kalo plant Ohana comes from Kalo Makua = parent Oha (sprout) = child.

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Manoa Valley Ahupua’a

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Manoa valley ahupua a

Manoa Valley Ahupua’a

  • An Ahupua’a is a natural land division, which is bordered by streams from Mauka to Makai


Manoa valley ahupua a

Typical Ahupua’a


Manoa valley ahupua a

Ohana: Family Life

Hawaiian tradition recognizes that people are descendants of the kalo plant

Ohana comes from Kalo

Makua = parent

Oha (sprout) = child


Manoa valley ahupua a

Ohana were guided by family spirits called ‘Aumakua

They were ancestors of the family who provided guidance and advise

They took on forms of nature such as mano: sharks (most revered), honu: turtles, pueo: owls

Illustrates how Hawaiians are connected to nature, their surroundings

A premier of indigenous learning


Indigenous learning

Indigenous Learning

  • Spiritual and secular worlds are connected

  • Knowledge embedded in cosmology

  • No clear distinctions between intangible and physical elements

  • Knowledge is holistic and cannot be separated from land, resources, nature


Manoa valley ahupua a

  • Early education

  • Strict discipline

  • What they needed to learn they learned at home

  • Child’s age based on his physical abilities

  • Chores based on child’s strengths, size

  • 2 year old = carries water

  • 6 year old = carries coconuts

  • 10 year old = carries sibling


Pre contact education

Pre Contact Education

  • Education a child received depended on birth status:

  • Ali’I children had kahu (tutor) - they learned about leadership, royalty

  • Maka’ainana children taught by kupuna (grandparents) -- they learned about legends, their families kapu (guardian)


Pre contact education1

Pre Contact Education

  • Goal: teach children to be responsible members of society

    • Content:

      • Chants

      • Hula

      • Genealogies,

      • Legends

    • Formal ways of learning:

      • Imitation

      • Oral history

      • Observation

    • Informal ways of learning:

      • Direction from kupunas

      • Play


Manoa valley ahupua a

  • Older boys learned as they worked side by side with the men.

  • They learned to plant, fish, make poi, prepare food for imu


Manoa valley ahupua a

  • Older girls worked with the women

  • They learned how to make baskets, mats, and gourds for carrying food and water

  • They took care of the children, cleaning, collected shells, seaweed, etc.


Post contact

Post Contact

  • First material printed in Hawaiian was by missionaries -- contained sentences and spelling words from the Bible

  • 1830, over 1,000 schools -- taught by native teachers, under the guidance of the missionaries

  • Education in the Hawaiian language

  • Ho’ike -- a quarterly exam of students -- which were festive occasions attended by ali’i where students demonstrated what they had learned


Post contact 1900

Post Contact 1900

  • Children ages 6 to 15 had to attend school

  • No longer run by missionaries but by state government

  • Underlying problem: why educate people if they are just going to work on the plantation?

  • Same problems today existed then: too little tax money supported education -- a federal commission found that too little tax money supported education - the old Territorial school which taught teachers became part of the new UH Manoa


References

References

  • Williams, J. S. (1997). From the Mountains to the Sea: Early Hawaiian Life.

  • Kamehameha Schools Press, 1997

  • Kamehameha Schools Hawaiian Studies Institute (1994). Life in Early Hawaii: The Ahupua’a, 3rd ed. Available online at, http://kspress.ksbe.edu

  • Chapin, H. G. (1999). Hawaiian Historical Society. Available online at http://www.hawaiianhistory.org/index.html

  • Menton, L. K., & Tamura, E. H. (1999). A History of Hawaii, 2nd ed. Curriculum Research & Development Group, Honolulu, HI

  • Kamakua, S. M. (1991). Tales and Traditions of the People of Old. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu, HI 1991

  • Kamakua, S. M. (1964). The People of Old. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu, HI 1964


Manoa in 1924

Manoa in 1924


Manoa in 1936

Manoa in 1936


Manoa in 1949

Manoa in 1949


Manoa in 1969

Manoa in 1969


Manoa in 1987

Manoa in 1987


Long range development plan

“Long Range” Development Plan


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