Introduction. Diesel Hybrid Automobiles and a Greener, More Independent Future Weston Eidson [email protected] History. First Hybrid Vehicles
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Diesel Hybrid Automobiles and a Greener, More Independent Future
Weston Eidson [email protected]
New Diesel cars produce less carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide and get 20 to 40 percent better mileage than vehicles already on the market.
Revised federal pollution rules that took effect in January reduce the allowable sulfur content of diesel fuel from 500 to 15 parts per million, and the new cars are outfitted with sophisticated exhaust and filtering systems that further cut pollution.
Consumers will pay extra for a diesel, though not as much as the $2,000 to $7,000 tacked on to the price of gas-electric hybrids. For instance, a Mercedes-Benz E320 diesel sedan costs about $1,000 more than a similar gas model.
But it gets more than 35 miles per gallon, about 10 miles per gallon better than a comparable gas-fueled Mercedes.
The prototype marks the first combination of the 1.6-liter, 66 kW HDi engine with the latest generation Stop & Start system. The company added a dedicated control system to the engine, using operating instructions coordinated directly by the powertrain management unit (PTMU), most notably for engine starts and stops, while also guaranteeing delivery of the torque required by the driver.
The engine, with the diesel particulate filter system (DPFS), meets Euro-4 standards.
Gasoline engine: 1.5-L, 16-valve, 4-cylinder,
cast-aluminum block and head, EFI Atkinson-
cycle VVTi (Variable Valve Timing with
intelligence), 13:0:1 compression ratio, 70 hp
at 4,500 rpm, 82 lb-ft of torque at 4,200 rpm
Electric motor and inverter, The synchronous permanent magnet electric motor develops 16 kW of continuous power, with 80 Nm of torque. It offers peak power of 23 kW and 130 Nm to meet occasional demand from the driver.
PSA Peugeot Citroën opted for the volume and performance of the motor to ensure that the all-electric mode would be used for speeds up to 50 kilometers per hour—a speed typical of city driving.
Connected to the inverter, the motor operates in a voltage range from 210 to 380 volts. In the restricted space available, this electric motor/inverter does not enable use of the conventional engine cooling circuit, whose typical temperature is too high. Water cooling is therefore provided by a special radiator and a low-temperature cooling circuit at 60°C.
For main road and highway driving, the electric motor can provide a 35% power boost for extra acceleration.
Electricmotor: Three-phase AC permanent
magnet with peak power of 33 kW/44 hp
at 1,040–5,600 rpm, peak torque of
350.0 N-m/258 lb/ft (0–400 rpm)
Battery system. The battery pack consists of 240 NiMH (Nickel-Metal Hydride) cells that deliver 23 kW of power at a nominal voltage of 288 volts. The cells are cooled by special air intakes that recover air from the passenger compartment, taking advantage of its temperature control.
There is also a conventional 12V storage battery, which continues to handle its usual functions.
The high-voltage battery pack fits in the rear part of the Group’s platform 2 vehicles (base for the Peugeot 307 and Citroën C4) in place of the spare tire, following a slight modification to the cut-out in this compartment. Adding the batteries does not reduce trunk capacity for any of the vehicles.
Battery: Sealed nickel-metal hydride battery,
A <100 g/km
B 101-120 g/km
Peugeot Citroën Has Tested at (80 g/km) city and (90 g/km) highway
Honda Insight petrol electric hybrid (80 g/km)
Smart diesel (90 g/km)
Toyota Prius 1.5 litre petrol-electric hybrid (104 g/km)
Smart car 0.7 litre petrol (113 g/km)
Citroen C2 1.4 litre diesel (108 g/km)
Ford Fiesta 1.4 diesel (114 g/km CO2)
Customize to Hybridize
Hybrid Powertrain Additions
There is a natural compliment between the properties of a diesel engine and the properties of an electric motor. Working together these two propulsion methods create an optimal system for moving large mass with quick acceleration and maximum fuel efficiency. Military implementations have yielded not only maximum performance, but also stealthy operation in combat scenarios. Hybrid Buses and shuttles benefit tremendously given their frequent stops and starts. http://www.calmotors.com/