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Introduction. Diesel Hybrid Automobiles and a Greener, More Independent Future Weston Eidson [email protected] History. First Hybrid Vehicles

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Introduction

Introduction

Diesel Hybrid Automobiles and a Greener, More Independent Future

Weston Eidson [email protected]


History

History

  • First Hybrid Vehicles

    • Jacob Lohner & Co in Vienna, Austria produced electric cars from 1898 to 1906.Ferdinand Porsche, one of Lohner´s employees developed a drive system based on fitting an electric motor to each front wheel without transmissions (hub mounted). Vehicles of this type were known as Lohner-Porsches.


History cont

History Cont.

  • Racing version of the front wheel driven, petrol-electric Lohner "Porsche“ - This vehicle was entered in the 1900 "Semmering" race and is driven by Dr. Porsche him self.

  • Too Expensive to Compete with conventional propulsion so they were abandoned.

  • Some claim Porsche invented the first four wheel drive car which was also a hybrid.


History cont1

History Cont.

  • Main reason for the early development was to assist the meager power of the internal combustion engine, when this was no longer needed the idea of the electric hybrid went dormant for decades.

    • In 1905 H. Piper filed a patent for a petrol-electric hybrid vehicle. His idea was to use an electric motor to assist an internal-combustion engine, mainly to augment the ICE to let the vehicle accelerate to 40 kilometers (25 miles) per hour in 10 seconds, instead of the usual 30. By the time the patent was issued, three and a half years later, engines had become powerful enough to achieve this kind of performance on their own.

    • From 1897 to 1907, the Compagnie Parisienne des Voitures Electriques (roughly, Paris Electric Car Company), built a series of electric and hybrid vehicles, including the 1903 Krieger. With front-drive and power steering, the Krieger wasn't built in much quantity. One model ran on alcohol, and there was another version with what has been described as a gasoline-turbine engine; in those times, the term "turbine" sometimes meant “generator."

    • Cheap petrol and advances in ICE and automobile production in general (Henry Ford) gradually killed off the Hybrid "Cars".


History cont2

History Cont.

  • A notable exceptions is the1921 Owen Magnetic Model 60 Touring which uses a gasoline engine to run a generator that supplies electric power to motors mounted in each of the rear wheels.

  • Similar to Submarines


History cont3

History Cont.

  • Hybrid cars did not appear again until the in 1960's and 1970's, when cars like the 1965 GM512 and especially the 1973 VW Taxi Hybrid Vehicle which was produced in the wake of the Arab Oil embargo.

  • But Hybrid Vehicle technology did not disappear… its development continued in another arena.


Chicago s own pioneer zephyr

Chicago’s Own: Pioneer Zephyr

  • Record time from Denver to Chicago using Diesel-Electric power

  • 1934 made the 1,015 mile trip in just over 13 hours with an average speed of 77 MPH

  • 112.5 mph


Zephyr s locomotion

Zephyr’s Locomotion

  • The Pioneer Zephyr, like modern locomotives, is essentially an electric train that doesn't need overhead wires or a third rail. Instead, it generates the electricity it needs with its own diesel power plant on board.

  • The generator converts the mechanical power output of the diesel engine into electricity.

  • Here's How: The engine crankshaft extends into the generator, where it is wrapped with coils of conducting wire and is surrounded by a stationary magnetic field. A DC electric current is produced in the coil as the shaft rotates in the magnetic field. The electricity runs motors that turn the wheels, setting the train in motion.

  • The Pioneer Zephyr could generate up to 750 volts of electricity to move the train.


Zephyr s locomotion cont

Zephyr’s Locomotion Cont.

  • The Zephyr's diesel-electric power plant generated 600 horsepower, making the Zephyr more energy efficient than steam locomotives. But a new kind of engine was only one improvement in CB&Q's revolutionary train. The next step was to put the engine in an equally efficient body.

  • Diesel-electric locomotives are more efficient than steam locomotives at turning heat into useful mechanical energy. In a steam locomotive, burning fuel boils water, converting it into steam. The expanding steam pushes the pistons that turn the wheels. A lot of heat, or energy, is lost in making and delivering steam.

  • In a diesel-electric locomotive, burning diesel fuel pushes the pistons directly. Converting this mechanical energy at the traction motors for the wheels occurs with much less heat loss.

  • This is why diesel-electric locomotives can convert up to 40% of the heat from burning fuel into useful power. Steam locomotives could rarely do better than 6% because of their greater heat loss.


In chicago u 505

In Chicago: U-505

  • Diesel on the Surface

  • Diesel engines propelled U-boats on the surface, while electric motors provided power underwater. The U-505 had two nine-cylinder, 2,200 horsepower, turbocharged diesel engines, each of which turned a screw or propeller. Using diesel power, the U-505 had a top speed of 18.3 knots. Cruising at 12 knots, the U-505 could travel as far as 11,000 nautical miles before having to refuel. At times, temperatures in U-505’s diesel engine room exceeded 100˚F, and the noise was literally deafening. To make matters worse, the fumes made the crew’s food taste like diesel fuel.

  • Electric when Submerged

  • When U-boats dove, the only air for the crew to breathe came from air trapped in the boat and a small number of oxygen bottles. The U-505 could not use the diesel engines underwater because the engines would have consumed all the available air and created exhaust, causing the crew to suffocate. Before diving, the diesel engines were disconnected so that two 500 horsepower, battery-powered electric motors could propel the boat underwater. Running on the electric motors, U-505 reached a top speed of 7 knots. After traveling a maximum of 63 miles, the boat was forced to surface and use its diesel engines to recharge its electric batteries.


Hybrid electric vehicle

Hybrid Electric Vehicle

  • Though not today’s hybrids the previous examples laid the groundwork.

  • The Subs Could Run on Only Diesel Power However.


Diesel over gasoline

New Diesel cars produce less carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide and get 20 to 40 percent better mileage than vehicles already on the market.

Revised federal pollution rules that took effect in January reduce the allowable sulfur content of diesel fuel from 500 to 15 parts per million, and the new cars are outfitted with sophisticated exhaust and filtering systems that further cut pollution.

Consumers will pay extra for a diesel, though not as much as the $2,000 to $7,000 tacked on to the price of gas-electric hybrids. For instance, a Mercedes-Benz E320 diesel sedan costs about $1,000 more than a similar gas model.

But it gets more than 35 miles per gallon, about 10 miles per gallon better than a comparable gas-fueled Mercedes.

Diesel Over Gasoline


Diesel over gasoline cont

Diesel Over Gasoline Cont.

  • Makers of diesel vehicles say they also are prepared to seek a consumer tax break similar to the one hybrid buyers enjoy, about a $2,000 federal deduction.

  • Chrysler, which is owned by German automaker DaimlerChrysler and also makes Dodge and Jeep brands, will offer diesel-powered passenger cars. But Ford Motor Co. and General Motors Corp. plan to limit their diesel business to trucks until they see how the American market for passenger cars unfolds.


Diesel over gasoline cont1

Diesel Over Gasoline Cont.

  • Autobytel Inc., an online auto marketplace, showed 72 percent of Americans would "absolutely" consider buying a diesel vehicle.

  • J.D. Power and Associates forecasts that diesels, which currently account for just 3.4 percent of the cars on the road in the United States, will hit 15 percent within eight years. By comparison, J.D. Power projects that by 2011 hybrids will have only about 3 percent of the market, 11 years after the first one came ashore.


Diesel over gasoline cont2

Diesel Over Gasoline Cont.

  • unlike gas-powered cars, diesels do not emit high levels of carbon dioxide, a critical greenhouse gas. Diesel pollution has come from nitrous oxide and particulate emissions, which contribute to smog and acid rain. But the new fuel, used with the new filter and exhaust systems, significantly cuts so-called "nox" and particulate emissions.

  • A four-cylinder diesel engine also can be more powerful than a similar-size six-cylinder gasoline engine, and a six-cylinder diesel can best a gas-guzzling V-8. Diesel-powered eight-cylinder SUVs, such as the line Mercedes-Benz intends to introduce next year, can achieve at least 24 miles per gallon, far better than the 10 to 16 miles per gallon many SUVs get.

  • Durability is another selling point for diesels, say automakers. Because the engines are so well made, it is not uncommon for them to last 500,000 miles, whereas a gasoline engine that logs 150,000 miles is considered ancient.

  • Urea, a common chemical compound, will have to be periodically replenished by owners, causing the Environmental Protection Agency to worry it will not be done but onboard computers can remind drivers and if need be limit the performance of the vehicle until the reservoir is filled, similar to filling windshield wiper fluid.


How hybrids work

How Hybrids Work

  • http://videos.howstuffworks.com/mazda-hybrid-video.htm


Diesel hybrid best of both worlds

Diesel Hybrid – Best of Both Worlds

  • source at BMW is still confident that current diesels have hybrids beat. "Hybrid cars are very good for slow and stop-start driving but not so good at higher speeds. Overall, our diesel vehicles are still more economical." A diesel-hybrid could be even more economical.


Problem has been price

Problem Has Been Price

  • More Expensive Engine

  • Buckling the Systems

  • Chassis


How the diesel hybrid works case study peugeot citro n

How the Diesel Hybrid WorksCase Study, Peugeot Citroën

  • Hybrid technology using a petrol engine is not very competitive financially, and does not offer significantly better fuel economy or CO2 emission performance than a conventional HDi diesel engine. However, PSA Peugeot Citroën believes that combining a hybrid powertrain with an HDi engine would constitute a step change in terms of improved fuel economy and lower CO2 emissions in Europe, where diesel engines are already widely used.

  • —PSA Peugeot Citroën statement


Case study cont

Case Study Cont.

  • Model year 2010, Looks Closest to coming to Market, At least in Europe

  • The hybrids deliver average combined city and highway fuel consumption of 3.4 liters per 100 kilometers (69 mpg US), with 90 grams of CO2 emitted per kilometer—a tank-to-wheel record for compact cars, the most popular segment in Europe. This is about 25% better than a similar vehicle equipped with a gasoline hybrid system, or as much as a liter per 100 kilometers in combined city and highway driving.

  • Today’s Toyota Prius is estimated at 52/45 MPG


Case study cont1

Case Study Cont.

  • PSA Peugeot Citroën’s Hybrid HDi technology includes:

  • 1.6-liter HDi engine and diesel particulate filter system (DPFS)

  • New-generation Stop & Start system

  • Electric motor and inverter

  • High-voltage battery pack

  • Dedicated control electronics

  • All-electric mode for speeds under 50 kilometers an hour (31 mph)

  • Driver selection of Extended ZEV (Zero Emission Vehicle, i.e., all-electric) mode

  • Electronically-managed gearbox


Case study cont2

Case Study Cont.


Case study cont3

Engine

The prototype marks the first combination of the 1.6-liter, 66 kW HDi engine with the latest generation Stop & Start system. The company added a dedicated control system to the engine, using operating instructions coordinated directly by the powertrain management unit (PTMU), most notably for engine starts and stops, while also guaranteeing delivery of the torque required by the driver.

The engine, with the diesel particulate filter system (DPFS), meets Euro-4 standards.

Toyota Prius…

Gasoline engine: 1.5-L, 16-valve, 4-cylinder,

cast-aluminum block and head, EFI Atkinson-

cycle VVTi (Variable Valve Timing with

intelligence), 13:0:1 compression ratio, 70 hp

at 4,500 rpm, 82 lb-ft of torque at 4,200 rpm

Case Study Cont.


Case study cont4

Case Study Cont.


Case study cont5

Case Study Cont.


Case study cont6

Case Study Cont.

  • Stop & Start system. The Stop & Start system used in the Hybride HDi powertrain is based on the technology integrated in both the Citroën C2 and C3. The new system has 40% more power than the first generation to support the easier starting of the 1.6-liter diesel.

  • In the hybrid powertrain, the Stop & Start system restarts the ICE. While the Stop & Start function is only used on the C3 when the vehicle is stationary, the engine stop function can occur at any given moment on the Hybride HDi, as soon as the vehicle’s speed falls below 60 kilometers an hour (37 mph).


Case study cont7

Electric motor and inverter, The synchronous permanent magnet electric motor develops 16 kW of continuous power, with 80 Nm of torque. It offers peak power of 23 kW and 130 Nm to meet occasional demand from the driver.

PSA Peugeot Citroën opted for the volume and performance of the motor to ensure that the all-electric mode would be used for speeds up to 50 kilometers per hour—a speed typical of city driving.

Connected to the inverter, the motor operates in a voltage range from 210 to 380 volts. In the restricted space available, this electric motor/inverter does not enable use of the conventional engine cooling circuit, whose typical temperature is too high. Water cooling is therefore provided by a special radiator and a low-temperature cooling circuit at 60°C.

For main road and highway driving, the electric motor can provide a 35% power boost for extra acceleration.

Toyota Prius…

Electricmotor: Three-phase AC permanent

magnet with peak power of 33 kW/44 hp

at 1,040–5,600 rpm, peak torque of

350.0 N-m/258 lb/ft (0–400 rpm)

Case Study Cont.


Case study cont8

Battery system. The battery pack consists of 240 NiMH (Nickel-Metal Hydride) cells that deliver 23 kW of power at a nominal voltage of 288 volts. The cells are cooled by special air intakes that recover air from the passenger compartment, taking advantage of its temperature control.

There is also a conventional 12V storage battery, which continues to handle its usual functions.

The high-voltage battery pack fits in the rear part of the Group’s platform 2 vehicles (base for the Peugeot 307 and Citroën C4) in place of the spare tire, following a slight modification to the cut-out in this compartment. Adding the batteries does not reduce trunk capacity for any of the vehicles.

Toyota Prius…

Battery: Sealed nickel-metal hydride battery,

274 volts

Case Study Cont.


Case study cont9

Case Study Cont.

  • All-electric mode: Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV). The driver can use a special switch to access an extended all-electric mode that expands the operating range for the vehicle in this mode. In this case, the ICE is only activated for more prolonged acceleration.

  • The extended all-electric mode is de-activated either automatically, when the high-voltage battery pack no longer has a sufficient charge, or manually, by using the dedicated switch.


Case study cont10

Case Study Cont.

  • Economics and Future. PSA Peugeot Citroën says that while it could market its Hybride HDi vehicles as early as 2010, the introduction is dependent upon its ability to make the technology available at an affordable price.

  • Today, the price gap between a Hybride HDi model and a comparable diesel HDi model is still too wide and would have to be halved to make diesel hybrid vehicles accessible to most consumers.

  • The Group is planning a two-pronged approach to reach that goal:

  • Extensive R&D on the four areas that generate most of the extra cost: high-voltage batteries, electric motor/generator, inverter and the regenerative braking system.

  • Unite the expertise of equipment manufacturers and research laboratories to focus on this project.

  • PSA Peugeot Citroën has asked the French Agency for Industrial Innovation to support the project.


Case study cont11

Case Study Cont.


Case study cont co2

BandCO2 emissions

A <100 g/km

B 101-120 g/km

Peugeot Citroën Has Tested at (80 g/km) city and (90 g/km) highway

Examples

Honda Insight petrol electric hybrid (80 g/km)

Smart diesel (90 g/km)

Toyota Prius 1.5 litre petrol-electric hybrid (104 g/km)

Smart car 0.7 litre petrol (113 g/km)

Citroen C2 1.4 litre diesel (108 g/km)

Ford Fiesta 1.4 diesel (114 g/km CO2)

Case Study Cont. CO2


Smart car diesel hybrid

Smart Car Diesel Hybrid

  • The diesel hybrid version of the smart car consumes just 2.9 liters of fuel/100 km (81 mpg US).

  • The diesel hybrid combines a 20 kW electric motor with the 30 kW (40 hp) diesel engine. The design is much the same as Crosstown (gasoline) hybrid, with the electric motor providing start-stop functionality, drive assistance, shift delay bridging and regenerative braking.

  • Because the car’s shift delays are bridged by the electric motor, it only needs 17.8 seconds to accelerate from zero to 100 km/h. That’s ten percent—two seconds—better than with a conventional diesel drive.


Smart car diesel hybrid cont

Smart Car Diesel Hybrid Cont.

  • The Diesel Is Much More Economical in terms of MPG

  • No Commercial Plans Yet However


Where are we now chicago cta

Where Are We Now? Chicago CTA

  • Chicago, Among Other Cities Has a Small Test Fleet of Diesel Hybrid Busses.

    • “Hybrid buses are a good example of what I’ve been saying for some time: there really is no downside when it comes to protecting the environment,” said Mayor Daley. “It improves public health; it beautifies the city; it saves money; and it enhances the quality of life.”

    • The New Flyer hybrid bus is powered by both a diesel engine and electric motor for improved fuel efficiency; and up to a 90 percent reduction in emissions compared to a diesel powered bus.


Chicago cta cont

Chicago CTA Cont.

  • “We will be evaluating the performance of these hybrid buses in Chicago’s extreme weather conditions and compare the two types of drive systems to determine if hybrid buses are suitable as future additions to CTA’s fleet,” said CTA President Frank Kruesi. “Other new buses in our fleet are equipped with low-emission engines that produce 60 percent fewer emissions than the buses they are replacing, so if the hybrids perform well, we have the potential for emission levels to fall even further.”

  • The 20 hybrid buses are part of CTA’s larger investment of 650 low-emission buses that are replacing aging buses in CTA’s fleet. The buses are manufactured by New Flyer in St. Cloud, Minnesota. The average cost of a hybrid bus is $530,000, compared to $341,000 for a standard diesel bus.

  • Notice the Battery Packs on top of the bus


Chicago cta cont1

Chicago CTA Cont.

  • Emission levels from CTA buses in 2005 was 22 percent of 564 tons less than the annual emission level in 1997, even as ridership has grown by 12 percent over the same period. By converting to ultra low sulfur diesel fuel in 2003, the CTA is well ahead of schedule in implementing the 2007 Federal Emission requirements for reduced particulate matter and carbon monoxide.


Chicago cta cont the two forms of hybrids discussed

Chicago CTA Cont.The Two Forms Of Hybrids Discussed

  • The first 10 hybrid buses to arrive will be equipped with a parallel drive system, which is similar to a hybrid system found in a car. An on-board computer blends the diesel engine power and the electric motor power from the battery unit for optimum efficiency. When the vehicle leaves a stop, it will operate initially on electric power and as its speed increases, it will operate on a combination of electric power and diesel engine power until it reaches an optimum speed where it will operate entirely on the diesel engine.

  • The second 10 to arrive will be equipped with a series drive system, which is a more traditional generator-driven traction motor propulsion system. In this system, the diesel engine runs a generator. The generator provides electric power to the traction motors which, in turn, power the bus. A computer manages power to the traction motors and battery. At certain times during operation, the bus runs on generator power or battery power.


Second form of hybrid

Second Form of Hybrid

  • Mild Hybrid – Chevrolet found 10% increase in fuel economy by shutting down and restarting the engine on demand .

  • Conventional vehicles with oversized starter motors, allowing the engine to be turned off whenever the car is coasting, braking, or stopped, yet restart quickly and cleanly. Accessories can continue to run on electrical power while the engine is off

  • Some have Regenerative Braking

  • Many people do not consider these to be hybrids at all since they do not have hybrid drivetrains (there is no electric motor to drive the vehicle), and these vehicles do not achieve the fuel economy of full hybrid models.


Future of diesel hybrids

Future of Diesel Hybrids

  • Aptera hybrid is to be built from lightweight composites, and designed to deliver its 330 mpg in normal city and highway driving and demonstrate acceleration and handling similar to that of a Honda Insight.

  • Production powertrain will consist of a 12 hp (9 kW) diesel engine with a 25 hp (19 kW) permanent magnet DC motor. (Accelerated Composites is designing the prototype with a gasoline engine for cost.) The electric motor is coupled through a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT); when the engine is off the car can run on the electric motor alone.

  • The company plans to use ultracapacitors for energy storage, although it is working with lightweight lead gauze batteries in the prototype. (Lead gauze batteries suspend the electrolyte in a gauze material.)

  • The Aptera weighs 850 lbs and is made almost entirely of lightweight composites, based on Accelerated Composites’ Panelized Automated Composite Construction (PAC2) process. It accelerates from 0–60 mpg in 11 seconds, and has a top speed of 95 mph.


Future of diesel hybrids cont

Future of Diesel Hybrids Cont.

  • BMW Rumor

    • source at BMW is still confident that current diesels have hybrids beat. "Hybrid cars are very good for slow and stop-start driving but not so good at higher speeds. Overall, our diesel vehicles are still more economical." A diesel-hybrid could be even more economical.

    • working on diesel hybrid versions of its 5-Series sedan and X5 sport utility vehicle, both in time for 2010.


Future of diesel hybrids cont1

Future of Diesel Hybrids Cont.

  • Based on the new 2006 Mercedes-Benz S-Class, the Bluetec Hybrid uses what the company claims to be the "cleanest diesel in the world." A process called Selective Catalytic Reduction--literally the use of urea injected into the exhaust--neutralizes gases and reduces nitrogen oxide emissions by 80 percent.

  • The hybrid system allows a twenty-percent reduction in fuel consumption compared to a conventional S-Class diesel.

  • Zero to sixty mph in just over seven seconds--about as fast a gasoline-powered V-6 S-class

  • However looks as though the company will prefer to further research fuel cells


Future of diesel hybrids cont2

Future of Diesel Hybrids Cont.

  • Toyota to sell diesel hybrid by 2010 thanks to Isuzu

  • Toyota's recent purchase of a 5.9% stake in Isuzu will bear fruit in 2010 when the Japanese juggernaut marries its Synergy hybrid drive system with a diesel engine. Presumably such a hook up was made possible, or at least hastened, by the expertise in diesels that Isuzu brings to the table.

  • as diesel engines excel in efficiency when cruising at highway speeds, much more so than a gasoline engine, which to this point has always been the electric motor's dance partner in modern hybrids.

  • JapanToday is reporting that a Toyota subcompact with this diesel hybrid drivetrain will be available as soon as 2010.


Future of diesel hybrids cont3

Future of Diesel Hybrids Cont.

  • 1.7-liter CDTI engine, delivers up to 25 to 30 percent improved fuel economy

  • 59 miles per gallon

  • Integrating both hybrid and diesel technology could add up to $8,000 to the price of a vehicle, which may limit its appeal to American consumers. "Even (with gas at) $3 a gallon, $8,000 (more) is a lot to pay."

  • DaimlerChrysler's future diesel hybrids will be based on the hybrid technology being developed with GM and would be available in late 2007 or early 2008, according to Quinnell. In the future, "Adding the hybrid option would be an option to check off," as customers do today to request a turbo-charged engine, Quinnell said.


Future of diesel hybrids cont4

Future of Diesel Hybrids Cont.

  • Ford Concept: Making Hybrids Sporty and Cool with a Lithium Ion battery, 65 mpg , All-Wheel Drive, and a Solar Catching Sun Roof to Power the Lights


Customize to hybridize

Customize to Hybridize

California Motors

Hybrid Powertrain Additions

Bio-Diesel Hybrid

There is a natural compliment between the properties of a diesel engine and the properties of an electric motor. Working together these two propulsion methods create an optimal system for moving large mass with quick acceleration and maximum fuel efficiency. Military implementations have yielded not only maximum performance, but also stealthy operation in combat scenarios. Hybrid Buses and shuttles benefit tremendously given their frequent stops and starts. http://www.calmotors.com/


This just in

This Just In

  • Zytek

  • Standard vehicle Zytek dual mode hybrid Fuel economy (Urban) 5.9l/100km, 47.9 mpg No fuel used in electric drive

  • Fuel economy (Combined) 4.6l/100km, 61.4 mpg 3.2l/100km, 88mpg (corrected to charge neutral, ie with no net change in battery state of charge)

  • Overall CO2 (Tank-wheel) 121g/km 85g/km Acceleration 0-100kph 15.53s Under 12s (about 0-60)


This just in cont

This Just In Cont.

  • Plug in

  • Dual Mode

    • Today’s passenger car production hybrids are either parallel or dual mode systems. Pure series hybrids offer high efficiency at low speeds but this greatly reduces as speed increases, and hence this drivetrain only finds application in low speed, stop start vehicles such as inner city buses. Parallel hybrids have the internal combustion engine permanently coupled to the wheels so are more efficient at high speeds, but offer less flexibility to optimise the drive for low speed duty cycles.

    • A new generation of dual mode transmissions offer the ability to operate in series or parallel mode so the drive can be optimised for each operating condition, but they are generally more complex and therefore larger and more expensive. There are also inevitable compromises in today’s production dual-mode designs.

    • Zytek’s novel solution is a dual-mode hybrid that eliminates these compromises by using sophisticated control strategies to replace clutches and complex epicyclic gearsets. In addition to the many advantages of dual-mode operation, this reduces component count, eliminates wearing friction surfaces, reduces packaging volume and substantially reduces manufacturing costs. The design also allows each motor to be optimised for its function within the drivetrain.


This just in cont1

This Just In Cont.

  • Five Door Competition

  • ₤5,000 Grant from UK Government


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Less Diesel Consumed, Less Dependant

  • Diesel Also Can Use Bio Fuel to Further Reduce Dependency

  • Can be Cheaper to Create/Refine Diesel


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