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修辞与翻译. 常用英汉修辞手段 : simile 明喻; metaphor 暗喻; metonymy 转喻 / 借代; synecdoche 提喻; personification 拟人; hyperbole 夸张; antithesis 对偶; pun 双关; irony 反语; euphemism 委婉; circumlocution 迂回 climax 渐进; parallelism 平行; onomatopoeia 拟声; aposiopesis 跳脱; rhetorical question 设问. 1 直译法 —— 对可译的辞格,尽可能直译.

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slide1
修辞与翻译
  • 常用英汉修辞手段:simile明喻; metaphor 暗喻; metonymy转喻/借代;synecdoche 提喻;personification拟人; hyperbole夸张; antithesis对偶; pun双关; irony反语; euphemism委婉;circumlocution 迂回climax渐进; parallelism平行; onomatopoeia 拟声; aposiopesis 跳脱;rhetorical question 设问
slide2
1 直译法——对可译的辞格,尽可能直译
  • 明喻;暗喻;拟人;夸张
  • 讳饰;转喻;省略;折绕
  • 移就;呼告;递升;递降;反语
  • 跳脱; 排比; 设问; 反问; 谲辞
simile
明喻 Simile
  • A:明喻就是明显的比喻, 是本体, 喻体和比喻词都出现的比喻 。明喻用的比喻词是“像, 如 ,若, 仿佛 ,似, 俨然” 或为反映程度性质差别而说成“好象, 很象, 真象 ,活象 ,就象, 正如, 犹如, 恰似” 等。 明喻的公式是 X 象 Y ,是描写性的。 
  • B:明喻又称 “显比”,“直喻”,“明比”,是一种十分明显的比喻。明喻是本体 ,喻体 ,比喻词都要出现的比喻 。本体与喻体之间在形式上具有非常明显的相似 (或相类) 关系。 它的形式就是 :A 象 B。
slide4
Similes in the Chinese language can usually be rendered by words like “象 ,好象,似 ,好似 ,如 ,如同 ,仿佛 ,犹如, 宛如 ,象 …一样(似的, 一般)”。    prep.
  • But in English, comparative words are of various parts of speech.
  • 1.likeprep.
  • 2.“as”, “(as)…as”, “as… (,) so …”, “may (might) as well … as …”, “as if (as though)”conjunctions and prepositional phrases
  • 3.“seem”, “surpass”, “be likened to”, “remind of”, “compare …to”, “treat …as”, “regard …as”verbs and verb phrases
slide5
刘玉翠回到村里,就好比是住进了监牢里。(康濯《春种秋收》)Having returned to the village,Liu Yucui felt as if she had got into prison.
  • He drove as if possessed by the devil. 他着魔似的驾车狂奔。
slide6
可以直译
  • …her sharp mind, sawing raggedly through illusions like a bread knife through a hunk of frozen fish. 她敏锐的思想慢慢地剔开了错觉, 就象一把面包刀割开一块厚厚的冻鱼一样。
  • …(He) wanted it all with a horrible intensity, as the faun wants the nymph.他强烈得可怕地渴望着这一切,象牧神渴望林间的仙女一样。
  • The pen is to a writer what the gun is to a fighter.作家的笔犹如战士的枪。
slide7
需要增译
  • Every family is said to have at least one skeleton in the cupboard.
  • 俗话说,衣柜里面藏骷髅,见不得人的事家家都有。
  • Advice and correction roll off him like water off a duck’s back.
  • 劝导对他好像水过鸭背似的不起作用。
  • Life is like a yo-yo.
  • 生活是一个悠悠球,充满一连串的起伏不定。
slide8
需要改译
  • 爱自己尊如菩萨,待他人秽如粪土。
  • She had as high an opinion of herself as if she were a goddess, and treated like dirt.
  • 接着他们用绳子五花大绑,把节振德捆得象个粽子似的,又是一阵拳打脚踢。
  • They give him a good cuff and kick, trusses him up like a fowl and then went on walloping and kicking him again till his nose and mouth were a bloody pulp.
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Today you see them bouncing, buxom, red as cherries.
  • 如今你看他们又结实又胖,脸上红扑扑的。
  • Every bean has its black.
  • 人皆有短处。
  • The best is the enemy of the good.
  • 要求过高反难成功。
  • Don’t trust him. He is an ambulance chaser.
  • 不要相信他,他是个惟利是图的人。
slide10
这个辞格在汉语和英语修辞里有着共同的特点,那就是明显地打比方,在本体和喻体之间都出现显而易见的喻词,如:汉语里的 “像”、“好像”、 “比如”、“仿佛”、“好比”、“像……一样”、“如……一般”等等;英语里的like,as,as if,as though 等等。在翻译时,我们可利用其共同特点,用译文中相应的喻词来译原文里本体之间的喻词。
slide11
英语里 as ... as ...结构的明喻大多可以直译 :
  • as cold as ice 冰冷
  • as hot as fire 火热
  • as hard as rock 坚如磐石
  • as light as feather 轻如鸿毛
slide12
下面的直译生动形象,也能被中国读者所理解接受:下面的直译生动形象,也能被中国读者所理解接受:
  • as busy as a bee 像蜜蜂一样忙碌
  • as bold as a lion 像狮子一样勇猛
  • as cheerful as a lark 像云雀一样快活
  • as blind as a bat 瞎得像蝙蝠
slide13
但部分明喻采用了语义双关,不能从字面上进行翻译,我们只要译出其实际意思便可:但部分明喻采用了语义双关,不能从字面上进行翻译,我们只要译出其实际意思便可:
  • as cool as a cucumber 非常冷静(×像黄瓜一样镇定)
  • as sharp as a needle 十分精明 (×像针一样精明)
  • as tight as a drum 非常不肯花钱 (×像鼓一样紧)
  • as sure as a gun 一点不错 (×像枪一样确切)
metaphor
暗喻;Metaphor
  • A: A figure of speech in which one thing is described in terms of another. The basic figure in poetry. A comparison is usually implicit; whereas in simile it is explicit. ( A dictionary of Literary Terms)
  • B: Metaphor, perhaps the most important figure of speech, points out resemblance but with no acknowledging word. (Britannica Book of English Usage)
slide15
A:暗喻又称 “隐喻”, “隐比”, “暗比”,是比明喻更进一步的比喻, 是一种凝缩性的比喻,或者说是不露痕迹的比喻。 暗喻使本体和喻体关系更密切, 融成一体, 语言更精练, 语义更含蓄 。暗喻的本体, 喻体都出现 ,但它”们之间的关系是相同或相等, 相类的。 比喻关系不用比喻词表示, 而是暗含在一般的句子结构中, 所以叫暗喻 。它的形式是 A 是 B。
  • B:隐喻是比明喻更进一步的比喻 。它只出现比喻的事物 (喻体 )和被比喻的事物 (本体)。不用 “象” 这类比喻词, 而常常用 “是”,“成为” 等作为连接词把两者融为一体。
slide16
1) 何等动人的一页又一页篇章! 这是人类思维的花朵。(徐迟:《哥德巴赫猜想》)What inspiring chapters! They are the flowers of the human brainwork.
  • 2) 霎时间,东西长安街成了喧腾的大海。(袁鹰:《十月长安街》)At once,the Eastern and Western Chang’an Roads became roaring oceans.
  • 3) Jane’s uncle is an old fox,up to all kinds of evils. 简的叔叔是个老狐狸,什么坏事都干得出来。
  • 4) After that long talk,Jim became the sun in her heart. 那次长谈之后,吉姆成了她心中的太阳。
slide17
a bed of roses 安乐窝
  • clean hands 两袖清风
  • curtain-lecture 枕头风
  • like mushroom 雨后春笋
  • mushroom fame 一夜成名
  • a mushroom millionaire 暴发户
slide18
汉语的暗喻和英语的暗喻都不露比喻的痕迹,把甲直接说成 “ 是”乙或“变成了”乙,常用的喻词在汉语里有 “是”、“变成”、“变为”、“成为”、“成了”、“当作”等,英语里常用 “be”作喻词,也用 “become”,“turn into”等词语。暗喻在翻译中一般也可采取直译。
slide19
Metaphor vs. 隐喻
  • Chinese: a clever use of language or a wise blending of things.
  • English: metaphor has something similar to the function of human brain.
  • 英语 metaphor兼有汉语修辞格隐喻、借喻以及拟物的格式,作用也与这几种汉语修辞格基本相同。(毛荣贵,廖晟:2005)
personification
拟人;Personification

1) 每条岭都是那么温柔,虽然下自山脚,上至岭顶,长满了珍贵的林木,可是谁也不孤峰突起,盛气凌人。(老舍:《小花朵集》)All the ridges were so amiable. None of them stood above the others witharrogance,though their slopes were fully covered with precious trees.

slide21
2)“Don’t talk to me about no opportunity any more. Opportunity’s knocking down every door in the country,trying to get in. When I was young,a man had to go out and find opportunity and drag it home by the ears.”(Kurt Vonnegut: Tom Edison’s Shaggy Dog)“休说什么机会难逢。机会正在国内每家每户敲门,想要进去呢。 我年轻那会儿,人们得出门去寻找机会,揪着耳朵把它拖回来。”
slide22
3) How soon hath Time,the subtle thief of youth,stolen on his wing my three and twentieth year! (John Milton)时间,这个盗窃青春的狡猾的小偷,盗窃了我二十又三年飞走了。
hyperbole
夸张; Hyperbole

1)我从乡下跑到京城里,一转眼已经六年了。(鲁迅:《一件小事》)Six years have passed by in a twinkle since I came to the capital city from the countryside.

2) She is the prettiest girl in the world. 她是世界上最漂亮的姑娘。

euphemism
讳饰;Euphemism (委婉语)
  • 1)尤氏道:“我也暗暗地叫人预备了。——就是那件东西,不得好木头,且慢慢地办着罢。”(曹雪芹:《红楼梦》,第十一回)“I’ve secretly sent people to get things prepared. But they haven’t found good wood for that thing yet,so we have to wait.”
  • 2) His daughter is rather weak in the head. 他的女儿脑子不太好使。

(原文用 “weak in the head”来回避 “stupid”或 “foolish”这两个词,译文用 “脑子不太好使”来代替 “笨”或 “蠢”字。)

slide25
我和她的关系出现了一个“黑洞”,后来“裂变”,到现在已经“死机”了。我和她的关系出现了一个“黑洞”,后来“裂变”,到现在已经“死机”了。
metonymy
转喻;Metonymy
  • 1) 秃头站在白背心的略略正对面,弯了腰,去研究背心上的文字。(鲁迅:《示众》) Baldy,standing almost directly opposite White Jerkin,stooped to study the characters written on his jerkin.
  • 2) His wife spent all her life on the stage. ( = theatrical profession)他的妻子在舞台上度过了一生。(=戏剧工作,表演艺术)
  • 3) Paper and ink cut the throats of men,and the sound of a breath many shake the world. (= written words;speech)纸墨能割断人的喉管,嗓音能震动整个世界。(纸墨=写几个字;嗓音=说几句话)
slide27
有时采用意译更为合适
  • 1) Great minds think alike. (= Great people think alike.)英雄所见略同。(不宜译成 “伟大的脑袋所见略同。”)
  • 2) Gray hair should be respected. (gray hair = the aged)老年人应受到尊敬。(不宜译成 “灰头发应受到尊敬。”)
ellipsis
省略;Ellipsis
  • 1) 得到母亲去世的消息,我很悲痛。(“得到”= “我得到”)(朱德: 《母亲的回忆》)On hearing of my mother’s death,I was caught in a tremendous grief. (“on hearing of”= “as soon as I heard of ”)
  • 2) “When did he say this?”

“At the playground. And walking home. Yesterday.”

(= “He said this at the playground when he was walking home yesterday.”(John Cheever:The Season of Divorce)

“他什么时候说这话的?”“在广场上。昨天回家的路上。”

slide29
英语里还有一种省略形式叫 asyndeton,即连词省略,我们也可用直译方法
  • 1) He has provided the poor with jobs,with opportunity,with self-respect. (在 with self-respect 之前省去了连词 and。)他给穷人提供了工作,提供了机会,提供了自尊。
  • 2) They smiled,shook hands,parted. (在 parted 之前省去了 and。)他们微微一笑,相互握手,分手告别。
periphrasis
折绕;Periphrasis
  • 1) “孔乙己,你脸上又添上新伤疤了!”(鲁迅:《孔乙己》)(“ 添上新伤疤”意为 “又挨打了”。)“Kong Yiji! You’ve got fresh scars on your face!”
  • 2) 胡思乱想,一夜也不曾合眼。(曹雪芹:《红楼梦》,第十二回)(“不曾合眼”意为“没睡着觉”。)Indulging himself in wild fancies,he did not close his eyes throughout the night.
slide31
3) Her olfactory system was suffering from a temporary inconvenience. (= Her nose was blocked.)她的嗅觉系统暂时有些不便。(=她鼻塞。)
  • 4) His brother is a disturber of the piano keys. (= pianist)他哥哥是一个跟钢琴键找麻烦的人。(=钢琴家)(这一折绕句有着幽默的效果。)
hypallage
移就;Hypallage
  • 1) 然而悲惨的皱纹,却也从他的眉头和嘴角出现了。(《鲁迅全集》第二卷)Miserable wrinkles began to appear between his eyebrows and round his mouth.
  • 2) 广场上又烧起欢乐的篝火。(曲波:《林海雪原》)Jubilant bonfires were lit again on the square.
slide34
3) After a happy day,she had a sleepless night. 她在度过欢乐一天之后,却又熬过一个不眠之夜。
  • 4) In the examination,the boy threw a nervous glance at the teacher,who was obviously suspicious of his cheating. 在考场上,那个男孩用紧张的眼光瞥了老师一眼,老师显然怀疑到他在作弊。
slide35
把本来用以修饰人的形容词移属于同人有关的抽象物或具体物,这种貌似错误、实为妙用的修辞格叫做 “移就”(hypallage),它通过词语巧妙的“移植”,来取得常规搭配所无法得到的效果。
apostrophe
呼告;Apostrophe
  • 1) 敬爱的周总理啊,人民想念您,祖国需要您,我们的党不能没有您!(呼人)Oh,our beloved Premier Zhou,our people miss you very much,our motherland is in need of you,and our Party cannot afford to have your departure!
  • 2) England! awake! awake! awake!

Jerusalem thy sister calls! (W. Blake)(呼物)

  • 英格兰! 醒来! 醒来! 醒来吧!
  • 你的姐姐耶路撒冷在呼唤着你!
climax
递升;Climax
  • 1) 事情就是这样,他来进攻,我们把他消灭了,他就舒服了。消灭一点,舒服一点;消灭得多,舒服得多;彻底消灭,彻底舒服。( 毛泽东:《关于重庆谈判》)This is the way things are:if they attack and we wipe them out,they will have that satisfaction;wipe out some,some satisfaction;wipe out more,more satisfaction;wipe out the whole lot,complete satisfaction.
slide39
2) It is an outrage to bind a Roman citizen;to scourge him is a crime;to put him to death is almost parricide. (Cicero)绑架一个罗马公民是一种违法行为;对他进行肉体折磨是一种犯罪行为;把他处死几乎等于杀父母一样的叛逆行为。
  • 3) Threaten him,imprison him,torture him,kill him:you will not induce him to betray his country. 威胁他,监禁他,拷打他,处死他:这些都不能使他背叛自己的国家。
slide40
把事物按由小到大、由短到长、由低到高、由轻到重、由近到远、由易到难、由浅到深等次序说下去,这种修辞手法叫递升,英语里称作 climax。运用这一修辞手法,能够使要表达的思想逐步加深、感情逐步强化,因而能增强语言的说服力和感染力。
bathos anti climax
递降:Bathos ;Anti-climax
  • 1) 确实的,现在我们队伍中确有许多同志被这种作风带坏了。 对于国内外、省内外、县内外、区内外的具体情况,不愿作系统的周密的调查和研究,仅仅根据一知半解,根据 “想当然”,就在那里发号施令。( 毛泽东《改造我们的学习》)There are indeed many comrades in our ranks who have been led astray by this style of work. Unwilling to carry on systematic and thorough investigation and study of the specific conditions inside and outside the country,the province,country or district,they issue orders on no other basis than their scanty knowledge and “It must be so because it seems so to me”.
slide42
2) How haughtily he cocks his nose,
  • To tell what every schoolboy knows. (J. Swift)
  • 他昂首挺胸,趾高气扬,傲慢无比,
  • 讲开了每个小学生都知道的东西。
  • 3) The explosion completely destroyed a church,two houses,and a flowerpot. 这起爆炸事故彻底毁坏了一个教堂、两所房屋和一个花盆。
slide43
把事物按由大到小、由长到短、由高到低、由重到轻、由远到近、由难到易、由深到浅等次序说下去,这种修辞手法叫递降,英语称作 bathos,或称 anti-climax。汉语里的递降一般是一种 “渐降”,即楼梯式的逐渐下降,而英语里的 bathos 却常常是一种 “突降”,即令读者措手不及的突然下降,能产生幽默的效果。
irony
反语;Irony
  • 1) 周蘩漪:你这一次到矿上去,也是学着你父亲的英雄榜样,把一个真正明白你,爱你的人丢开不管么? (曹禺:《雷雨》)
  • FAN:And the reason why you are going away to the mine is that you’re following your father’s heroic example and throwing over the one person who really understands and loves you?
  • 2) 根据报纸上官方介绍,他是天底下头等大好人,浑身上下毫无缺点,连肚脐眼都没有。(宗福先《于无声处》)According to the official write-ups in the papers,he’s the best man in the world. He doesn’t have a single defect in his whole body. Why,he doesn’t even have a belly-button!
slide45
3) What a noble illustration of the tender laws of his favoured country! —they let the paupers go to sleep! (Charles Dickens)以此说明他那行善的国家的仁慈法律是多么有意义的例证! ——他们竟允许穷人睡觉!
  • 4) “The boy has broken another glass,”said the mother.
  • “A fine thing!”the father replied.
  • 母亲说:“小家伙又打碎了一个杯子。”
  • 父亲回答道:“好得很!”
aposiopesis
跳脱;Aposiopesis
  • 1) 何是非:秀英!……又发呆了。唉,家里现在是多顺心的日子哦,就是你……(宗福先:《于无声处》) He Shifei:Xiuying. There you are,standing around in a daze again. We’ve never had it so good as we have now,but you ...(“就是你……”:“就是你神情恍惚,精神不振,弄得大家不高兴。”)
  • 2) Four hours ago the child was alive and well,but now...! 四个小时以前,这孩子还好好的活着,一点都没事,可现在却……(“but now...”:“but now he is dead.”)
slide48
话说到一半,突然停住了,使听者或读者自己去领悟言外之意,这种修辞方式称跳脱,英语里称 aposiopesis。汉英两种语言里的跳脱有着共同的特点,可以采取直译。
parallelism parataxis
排比;Parallelism;Parataxis
  • 1)生产多么需要科学!

革命多么需要科学!

人民多么需要科学!

  • (秦牧:《向科学技术现代化进军的战鼓》)(排比)
  • Our production is in burning need of science!
  • Our revolution is in burning need of science!
  • Our people are in burning need of science!
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2) We can gain knowledge,by reading,by reflection, by observationorby practice. (parallelism)求知门径颇多,或阅读,或思考,或观察,或实践。
  • 3) I came,I saw,I conquered. (parataxis)我只身前往,我明察秋毫,我旗开得胜。
  • 4) We laughed,we sang,we danced. (parataxis)我们纵情欢笑,我们放声歌唱,我们翩翩起舞。
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为了达到一定的渲染效果,连着使用结构相同或相似的句子或词组,汉语里叫排比,英语里称 parallelism。排比要求三项或三项以上,字数不限,允许出现同形词语,这些都不同于对偶。英语里另有一种排比格,称 parataxis,特点是分句或短语之间不使用连接词,而是用逗号或分号,但它在结构上可以是三项或三项以上, 也可以是两项。
question and answer
设问;Question and Answer
  • 不知细叶谁裁出?(问)
  • 二月春风似剪刀。(答)(贺知章:《咏柳》)
  • But do you know by whom these young leaves are cut out?
  • The early spring wind is as sharp as scissor blade.
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Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? (问)
  • Thou art more lovely and more temperate. (答)(Shakespeare)
  • 我能不能拿夏天来同你相比?
  • 你呀比夏天来得可爱和温煦。
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反问;Rhetoric Question
  • 1) 幸因腐草出,
  • 敢近太阳飞? (杜甫:《萤火》)
  • By chance you’re born from grasses of decay,
  • Dare you fly near where shines the light of day?
  • 2) 醉卧沙场君莫笑,
  • 古来征战几人回? (王翰:《凉州词》)
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3)Then who will cheer my bonny bride
  • When they have slain her lover?
  • (Thomas Campbell)
  • 杀了这漂亮新娘的爱人,
  • 还有谁能使她欢愉?
  • 4) O,if you felt the pain I feel!
  • But O,who ever felt as I?
  • (W.S. Landor)
  • 啊,要是你能体会这痛苦!
  • 唉,可谁的感觉像我一样?
white lie
谲辞;White Lie
  • 1) 这里宝玉忙忙的穿了衣裳出来,忽见黛玉在前面慢慢的走着,似乎有拭泪之状,便忙赶着上来笑道:“妹妹往哪里去? 怎么又哭了? 又是谁得罪了你了?”黛玉回头见是宝玉,便勉强笑道:“好好的,我何曾哭来。”宝玉笑道:“你瞧瞧,眼睛上的泪珠儿没干,还撒谎呢!”(曹雪芹:《红楼梦》,第三十二回)
  • Baoyu hurried out after changing his clothes to see Daiyu walking slowly ahead,apparently wiping her eyes. He overtook her.
  • “Where are you going,cousin?”he asked with a smile. “What,crying again? Who’s offended you this time?”
  • Daiyu turned and saw who it was.
  • “I’m all right.”She gave a wan smile. “I wasn’t crying.”
  • “Don’t fib — your eyes are still wet.”
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2)A lad got on a bus to travel up to the West End. He offered the conductor 2 pence. “You can’t travel for 2 pence if you are over 14,”said the conductor.
  • “That’s right,mate,”said the boy. “I’m only 13.”
  • “Oh,yes? And when will you be 14?”
  • “As soon as I get off the bus.”(300 Western Humorous Stories)
  • 一个男孩走上公共汽车,到伦敦市西区去。他拿出两个便士向售票员买票。售票员说:“如果你超过十四岁,就不能只花两个便士乘车了。”
  • 男孩说:“对了,老兄,我才十三岁呢。”
  • 售票员问:“哦,是吗? 那你什么时候才十四岁呢?”
  • 男孩回答说:“一下车就是了。”
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3) A young girl entered a hospital to see her boyfriend. She walked boldly up to a woman whom she took to be a nurse there. “May I see Mr Jackson,please?”She said politely.
  • “Certainly,”said the woman. “By the way,may I ask who you are?”
  • “I’m his sister,”calmly replied the girl.
  • “Well,well!”chuckled the woman. “I’m so glad to meet you,honey. I\'m his mother.”
  • 一位年轻的姑娘走进医院探望男朋友。有一位妇女在那里,姑娘以为她是医院里的护士,壮着胆子走上前去。姑娘彬彬有礼地问:“请问,我可以来探望杰克逊先生吗?”
  • 妇女回答说:“当然可以啦。顺便问一声,你是什么人?”
  • 姑娘镇定地回答:“我是他的妹妹。”
  • 妇女轻轻地笑着说:“嗬嗬!好乖乖,我真高兴看到你哪。我是他的妈妈呀!”
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用来掩饰真情的假话叫做谲辞,英语里称 white lie。
  • 一般无伤大雅,也不含恶意。
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