Hostile media effect. Defining hostile media effect. People’s tendency to perceive neutral news coverage as one-sided and unfair in favor of their opposing side (HME). . Defining Hostile Media Effect.
The Hostile Media Phenomenon: Biased Perception and Perceptions of Media Bias in Coverage of the Beirut Massacre.Vallone, Ross & Lepper (1985)
More specifically, pro-Israeli subjects saw the news programs as “applying higher standards to Israel” as compared to pro-Arab ones who believed that the media were “applying lower standards to Israel.”
Christen, C., P. Kannaovakun, et al. (2002). "Hostile Media Perceptions: Partisan Assessments of Press and Public During the 1997 United Parcel Service Strike."