Hostile media effect. Defining hostile media effect. People’s tendency to perceive neutral news coverage as one-sided and unfair in favor of their opposing side (HME). . Defining Hostile Media Effect.
The Hostile Media Phenomenon: Biased Perception and Perceptions of Media Bias in Coverage of the Beirut Massacre.Vallone, Ross & Lepper (1985)
More specifically, pro-Israeli subjects saw the news programs as “applying higher standards to Israel” as compared to pro-Arab ones who believed that the media were “applying lower standards to Israel.”
Christen, C., P. Perceptions of Media Bias in Coverage of the Beirut Massacre.Kannaovakun, et al. (2002). "Hostile Media Perceptions: Partisan Assessments of Press and Public During the 1997 United Parcel Service Strike."