Inventory costing and capacity analysis
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Inventory Costing and Capacity Analysis. Chapter 9. Overview—Chapter 9. Inventory Costing Methods Denominator Issues Example: working backwards BEPs: VC versus AC Solution to extra problem (on webpage). Absorption Costing. All manufacturing cost are considered inventoriable:

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Inventory costing and capacity analysis

Inventory Costingand Capacity Analysis

Chapter 9


Overview chapter 9

Overview—Chapter 9

  • Inventory Costing Methods

  • Denominator Issues

  • Example: working backwards

  • BEPs: VC versus AC

  • Solution to extra problem (on webpage)


Absorption costing

Absorption Costing

  • All manufacturing cost are considered inventoriable:

    • All variable mfg. costs (both direct & indirect)

    • All fixed mfg. costs (both direct & indirect)

  • Separates costs by business function.

  • Other costing terms:

    • Super-full absorption costing: includes some mfg. related admin costs—used for tax.

    • Full-product costing: costs from all areas of value chain are attached to product costs—for L-T pricing.


Variable costing

Variable Costing

  • All variable manufacturing costs are considered inventoriable.

  • Separates costs by cost behavior.

  • Some managers call this direct costing which is a poor choice of name. Why?


Throughput costing

Throughput Costing

  • Also called super-variable costing.

  • Only variable direct materials are inventoriable. Assumes that only DM are variable in the short run.

  • Reduces incentives to build up inventories.

  • Relatively new and not widely used.


Stop the big picture

STOP! The big picture

  • Managers make a number of accounting choices that affect income, for example:


Inventory costing methods

Inventory-Costing Methods

The difference between variable costing

and absorption costing is based on the

treatment of fixed manufacturing costs.

AC includes fixed mfg. costs in cost of inventory, while VC does not. VC expenses all fixed costs as period costs.


Comparing income statements absorption vs variable costing

Comparing Income Statements:Absorption vs. Variable Costing

The following data pertain to Davenport Pencils:

Produce one product: #2 pencils. 1 box = 1 gross.

Sales price = $8/box; Sold 40,000 boxes

DM = $3 / box; DL = $0.50 / box

VMOH = $0.25 / box

FMOH = $100,000 / year

Sales commission = $0.75 / box

Fixed admin. expenses = $30,000 / year

Budget = actual production = 50,000 boxes


Comparing income statements

Comparing Income Statements

What is the cost per box under VC?

$3.00 + 0.50 + 0.25 = $3.75

What is the cost per box under AC?

$3.00 + 0.50 + 0.25 + 2.00* = $5.75

* Fixed mfg. OH rate = $2.00 / box = $100,000 / 50,000 boxes


Comparing income statements1

Comparing Income Statements

Absorption Costing

Revenue$320,000

CoGS230,000

GM90,000

S&A60,000

Op. Inc.$ 30,000

Variable Costing

Revenue$320,000

VC180,000

CM 140,000

FC130,000

Op. Inc.$ 10,000


Comparison of variable and absorption costing

Comparison of Variableand Absorption Costing

Variable costing operating income : $10,000

Absorption costing operating income : $30,000

Absorption costing operating income is

$20,000 higher.

Why?


Comparison of variable and absorption costing1

Comparison of Variableand Absorption Costing

Production exceeds sales.

The 10,000 unit increase in ending inventory

are valued as follows:

Absorption costing: 10,000 × $5.75 =$ 57,500

Variable costing: 10,000 × $3.75 =$ 37,500

Difference:$ 20,000


Comparison of variable and absorption costing2

Comparison of Variableand Absorption Costing

COGS

Absorption costing: 40,000 X $5.75 = $230,000

Variable costing: 40,000 X $3.75 = $150,000

Plus all the fixed mfg. OH = $100,000

Lower costs recognized under

absorption costing: $ 20,000


Comparison of variable and absorption costing3

Comparison of Variableand Absorption Costing

Under absorption costing, each of the additional 10,000 boxes in ending inventory is storing $2/box cost that will be expensed later when sold.

10,000 units of inventory × $2.00 = $20,000


Comparison of variable and absorption costing4

Comparison of Variableand Absorption Costing

Absorption costing

operating income

Variable costing

operating income

EQUALS

Fixed manufacturing

costs in ending

inventory under

absorption costing

Fixed manufacturing

costs in beginning

inventory under

absorption costing


Absorption costing inventory buildup

Absorption Costing & Inventory Buildup

What happens over the long run?

How might you mitigate the incentive to build up inventory?


Alternative denominator level concepts

Alternative Denominator-LevelConcepts

Theoretical capacity

Practical capacity

Normal capacity

Master-budget capacity


Budgeted fixed manufacturing overhead rate

Budgeted Fixed Manufacturing Overhead Rate

Lloyd’s Bicycles produces bicycle parts

for domestic and foreign markets.

Fixed overhead costs are $200,000 within the

relevant range of the various capacity volume.


Budgeted fixed manufacturing overhead rate1

Budgeted Fixed Manufacturing Overhead Rate

Assume that the theoretical capacity is

10,000 machine-hours, practical capacity

is 85%, normal capacity is 75%, and

master-budget capacity is 60%.

What is the budgeted fixed manufacturing

overhead rate at the various capacity levels?


Budgeted fixed manufacturing overhead rate2

Budgeted Fixed Manufacturing Overhead Rate

Theoretical 100%:

$200,000 ÷ 10,000 = $20.00/machine-hour

Practical 85%:

$200,000 ÷ 8,500 = $23.53/machine-hour

Normal 75%:

$200,000 ÷ 7,500 = $26.67/machine-hour

Master-budget 60%:

$200,000 ÷ 6,000 = $33.33/machine-hour


Effect of denominator level choice

Effect of Denominator Level Choice

  • The larger the denominator level, the:

    • Lower the budgeted FM rate.

    • Lower Fixed Mfg. costs in E.Inv.

    • Higher the unfavorable PVV for fixed OH

      Remember—Fixed mfg. are either expensed in the period or stored in E.Inv.

      What denominator level would you want to use for tax purposes? [practical is required for tax]


Decision making

Decision Making

Assume that Lloyd’s Bicycles’ standard

hours are 2 hours per unit.

What is the budgeted fixed manufacturing

overhead cost per unit?


Decision making1

Decision Making

Theoretical capacity: $20 × 2 = $40.00

Practical capacity: $23.53 × 2 = $47.06

Normal capacity: $26.67 × 2 = $53.34

Master-budget capacity: $33.33 × 2 = $66.66


Exercise working backward

Exercise—working backward

QQQ Company has op. income of $120,000 under absorption costing, and op. income would be $100,000 under variable costing.

FMOH = $500,000

Budgeted and actual production = 200,000 units.

Did inventory increase or decrease during the period? By how much?


In class problem

In-class problem

  • Answer depends on the FMOH rate for B.Inv and choice of inventory cost-flow method (FIFO, WA, LIFO, etc.).

  • Assume no change in FMOH rate. Then choice of cost-flow method does not matter.

  • FMOH rate = $500k / 200k = $2.50 / unit


Calculation of be points

Calculation of BE points

  • Unique solution under Variable Costing:

    • BEPvc = Total FC / UCM

  • Solution depends on production level under Absorption Costing:

    • BEPac = [Total FC + (FM rate* (BEPac – Units Produced))] / UCM

    • BEPac = [Total FC – (FMR*UP)] / (UCM – FMR)

      What happens to the BEP when more units are produced?


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