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Chapter 3. Configuring and Managing the DHCP Server Role. DHCP overview. RARP – one of the first ways to assign addresses BOOTP – Another legacy way to assign addresses. Still had manual aspects to it. DHCP – Based heavily off of BOOTP, but it is all dynamic. Centralized administration

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Chapter 3

Chapter 3

Configuring and Managing the DHCP Server Role

Dhcp overview
DHCP overview

  • RARP – one of the first ways to assign addresses

  • BOOTP – Another legacy way to assign addresses. Still had manual aspects to it.

  • DHCP – Based heavily off of BOOTP, but it is all dynamic.

    • Centralized administration

    • Dynamic host configuration

    • Seamless

    • Flexibility and scalability

How dhcp works
How DHCP works

  • Functions on the Application layer of OSI

  • Uses UDP broadcast messages

  • DHCP message Types

    • DHCPDISCOVER – sent by clients via broadcast to locate a DHCP Server.

    • DHCPOFFER – Sent by DHCP server to client in response to DHCPDISCOVER along with offered configuration parameters.

    • DHCPREQUEST - Sent by client to signal acceptance of offered address and parameters.

Dhcp messages contd
DHCP Messages contd.

  • DHCPDECLINE - Sent by client informing the server the offered IP address has been declined.

  • DHCPACK – Sent by server to confirm IP address.

  • DHCPNACK – Sent by server to deny the clients DHCPREQUEST.

  • DHCPRELEASE – sent by client relinquishing IP address and canceling the remaining lease.

  • DHCPINFORM – sent from client to ask for additional configuration parameters.

Putting the messages to work1
Putting the Messages to Work

  • The client will perform the initial process in the following situations:

    • The very first time the client boots

    • After releasing its IP address

    • After receiving a DHCPNACK message

  • Other situations, such as renewing, the process will be different. Refer to Page 40-41 of the reading.

Using the dhcp relay agent
Using the DHCP Relay Agent

  • Because DHCP uses broadcast messages you can not use DHCP across multiple subnets.

  • To pass DHCP messages through the router it must be RFC 1542 compliant.

  • If the router is not RFC 1542 compliant you can install the DHCP relay agent.

  • The relay agent will forward messages to the DHCP server.

Authorizing a dhcp server
Authorizing a DHCP Server

  • You must authorize a DHCP server in Active Directory before you can issue leases to clients.

  • In a workgroup environment this does not need to be done.

  • To authorize go into the DHCP console and choose to authorize.

Configuring dhcp scopes
Configuring DHCP Scopes

  • Scope – the addresses that able to be assigned

    • through is and example

  • Exclusion range – used to define addresses within the scope that will NOT be given out to clients.

  • Available Address Pool – after all ranges and exclusion are defined the remaining addresses are referred to this.

Configuring a dhcp reservation
Configuring a DHCP Reservation

  • A reservation allows you to specify a specific address for a host.

  • Ensures the host will always have that address, sort of like assigning a static address

  • The host’s MAC address is used to make the reservation

Configuring dhcp options
Configuring DHCP Options

  • Options are additional client-configuration parameters

    • 4 types

      • Server options – apply to all clients of the DHCP server

      • Scope options – apply to all clients within a scope

      • Class options – provide DHCP parameters to DHCP clients based on type

      • Client options – apply to individual clients. Client options override all other options

Managing the dhcp database
Managing the DHCP Database

  • Backup and Restore

  • Reconciliation – verifies DHCP database against registry values. After restore.

  • Compacting the database –optimizes database and reclaims unused space.

  • Removing the database

You Learned

  • DHCP is a simple, standard protocol that makes TCP/IP network configuration much easier for the administrator by dynamically assigning IP addresses and providing additional configuration information to DHCP clients automatically.

  • Additional configuration information is provided in the form of options and can be associated with reserved IPs to a vendor or user class, to a scope, or to an entire DHCP server.

Lesson 3

You Learned (cont.)

  • Because DHCP is a key component in your organization, you must manage and monitor it.

  • DHCP management consists of backing up and restoring the database as well as reconciling, compacting, and, in some cases, removing the database.

Lesson 3