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IT Essentials - Chapter 4. Operating System Fundamentals. IT Essentials - Chapter 4 Operating System Fundamentals. Operating Systems (OS) are software programs that control thousands of operations, provide an interface between the user and the computer, and run applications.

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It essentials chapter 4

IT Essentials -Chapter 4

Operating System Fundamentals


It essentials chapter 4 operating system fundamentals
IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Operating Systems (OS) are software programs that control thousands of operations, provide an interface between the user and the computer, and run applications.


It essentials chapter 4 operating system fundamentals1
IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Computers that are capable of handling concurrent users and multiple jobs are often called network servers or simply "servers". Servers have operating systems installed called Network Operating Systems (NOS).


It essentials chapter 4 operating system fundamentals2
IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Three basic elements make up the major design components of any operating system.


It essentials chapter 4 operating system fundamentals3
IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Three basic elements make up the major design components of any operating system.

    • User interface

    • Kernel

    • File management system


It essentials chapter 4 operating system fundamentals4
IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • User interface – A user interacts with the computer OS through the user interface.

  • Simply put, the user interface is the part of the operating system that a person can use to issue commands by either typing them at a command prompt or pointing and clicking the mouse on the screen of a Graphical User Interface (GUI).


It essentials chapter 4 operating system fundamentals5
IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Kernel – This is the core of the OS.

  • The kernel is responsible for loading and running programs (processes) and for managing input and output


It essentials chapter 4 operating system fundamentals6
IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • File management system – The file management system is what the OS uses to organize and manage files.


It essentials chapter 4 operating system fundamentals7
IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Operating system functions

    • File and folder management

      When a file is saved, the operating system saves it, attaches a name to it, and remembers where it put the file in the hard drive for future use.


It essentials chapter 4 operating system fundamentals8
IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Operating system functions

    • Management of applications

      When a user requests a program, the operating system locates the application and loads it into the primary memory or RAM of the computer.


It essentials chapter 4 operating system fundamentals9
IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Operating system functions

    • Support for built-in utility programs

      Utility programs are programs that the OS uses to maintain and repair itself. These programs help identify problems, locate lost files, repair damaged files, and backup data.


It essentials chapter 4 operating system fundamentals10
IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Operating system functions

    • Access control to computer hardware

      The OS sits between the programs and the Basic Input/Output System (BIOS). All programs that need hardware resources must first go through the operating system. The OS in turn can either access the hardware through the BIOS or through the device drivers.


It essentials chapter 4 operating system fundamentals11
IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Operating system types

    • Multiuser – Two or more users running programs and sharing peripheral devices, such as a printer, at the same time.


It essentials chapter 4 operating system fundamentals12
IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Operating system types

    • Multitasking – The capability of a computer to run multiple applications at the same time.


It essentials chapter 4 operating system fundamentals13
IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

Operating system types

  • Multiprocessing – Allows a computer to have two or more CPUs (Central Processing Unit) that programs share.


It essentials chapter 4 operating system fundamentals14
IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

Operating system types

  • Multithreading – The capability of a program to be broken into smaller parts that can be loaded as needed by the OS. Multithreading allows individual programs to be multitasked.


It essentials chapter 4 operating system fundamentals15
IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • MS-DOS

    • DOS is a collection of programs and commands used to control the overall computer operation in a disk-based system.

    • There are three distinct sections that make up the disk operating system. These include:


It essentials chapter 4 operating system fundamentals16
IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • MS-DOS

    • Boot files – Used during the boot process (that is, start-up).


It essentials chapter 4 operating system fundamentals17
IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • MS-DOS

    • Boot files – Used during the boot process (that is, start-up).

    • File management files – Enables the system to manage the data that it holds.


It essentials chapter 4 operating system fundamentals18
IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • MS-DOS

    • Boot files – Used during the boot process (that is, start-up).

    • File management files – Enables the system to manage the data that it holds.

    • Utility files – Enables the user to manage system resources, troubleshoot the system, and configure the system settings.


It essentials chapter 4 operating system fundamentals19
IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Elements of DOS

    • DOS is a command line operating system, it is not user-friendly. The best way to learn DOS is to use it.


It essentials chapter 4 operating system fundamentals20
IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Elements of DOS

    • DOS is a command line operating system, it is not user-friendly. The best way to learn DOS is to use it.

    • DOS can only run one program at a time. It is not multitasking.


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IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Elements of DOS

    • DOS is a command line operating system, it is not user-friendly. The best way to learn DOS is to use it.

    • DOS can only run one program at a time. It is not multitasking.

    • DOS can only run small programs and has memory limitations.


It essentials chapter 4 operating system fundamentals22
IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Elements of DOS

    • DOS is a command line operating system, it is not user-friendly. The best way to learn DOS is to use it.

    • DOS can only run one program at a time. It is not multitasking.

    • DOS can only run small programs and has memory limitations.

    • DOS is an essential tool for IT professionals and is used extensively for troubleshooting.


It essentials chapter 4 operating system fundamentals23
IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Files

    • A file is simply a block of logically related data that is given a single name and treated as a single unit.


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IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • File Attributes

    • All files have attributes.

    • These are a set of parameters that describe a file. Given the attributes of a file, it is possible to determine the nature of the file.


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IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • File Attributes

    • Hidden File – The user will not see this type of file with any kind of normal file search in a DOS environment.


It essentials chapter 4 operating system fundamentals26
IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • File Attributes

    • Hidden File – The user will not see this type of file with any kind of normal file search in a DOS environment.

    • Read Only – The user can open and read this type of file but cannot write or modify the file in any way.


It essentials chapter 4 operating system fundamentals27
IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • File Attributes

    • Hidden File – The user will not see this type of file with any kind of normal file search in a DOS environment.

    • Read Only – The user can open and read this type of file but cannot write or modify the file in any way.

    • Archive (backup) status – Used by backup utilities to determine if a file needs to be backed up or not.


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IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • File Attributes

    • Hidden File – The user will not see this type of file with any kind of normal file search in a DOS environment.

    • Read Only – The user can open and read this type of file but cannot write or modify the file in any way.

    • Archive (backup) status – Used by backup utilities to determine if a file needs to be backed up or not.

    • System File – A file needed by the DOS operating system for a successful bootup.


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IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Internal versus External DOS Commands

    • Commands that are built into the operating system are internal.

    • Commands that must be executed from a file are external.


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IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Command Line

    • the main user interface is the command line. The command line is the space immediately following the DOS prompt.


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IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • A DOS boot disk is just a floppy disk with three necessary system files on it:


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IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • A DOS boot disk is just a floppy disk with three necessary system files on it:

  • COMMAND.COM

  • IO.SYS

  • MSDOS.SYS


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IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • To create a bootable disk…

    • Insert a blank floppy disk in the drive.

    • At the command prompt type

      FORMAT A: /s and press Enter.

      or


It essentials chapter 4 operating system fundamentals34
IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • To create a bootable disk…

    • Insert a blank floppy disk in the drive.

    • At the command prompt type FORMAT A: /s and press Enter.

      or

    • If the disk is already formatted, type SYS A: and press Enter.


It essentials chapter 4 operating system fundamentals35
IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • DOS requires these files in this order to boot your system:

    • BIOS

    • bootstrap

    • io.sys

    • msdos.sys

    • config.sys

    • command.com

    • autoexec.bat


It essentials chapter 4 operating system fundamentals36
IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • During the boot process, while the MS-DOS message "Starting DOS..." is on, the screen special function keys are available to alter the loading process of CONFIG.SYS (and an option for AUTOEXEC.BAT).

  • F5 & F8


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IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • F5 (or Left Shift key)

    Skips CONFIG.SYS file (including AUTOEXEC.BAT files, if this option is chosen).

  • F8

    Proceeds through the CONFIG.SYS (and AUTOEXEC.BAT, if needed) files one step at a time waiting for Confirmation from the user.


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IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • SYSEDIT –

    is a standard text editor used to edit system configuration files such as Config.sys and Autoexec.bat.


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IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Conventional Memory

  • 0 and 640KB

  • Also known as base memory.

  • This is the area where MS-DOS programs normally run.

  • In older DOS machines, this is the only memory available for running the OS files, application programs, memory resident routines, and device drivers. Memory-resident routines include Terminate-and-Stay-Resident (TSR) Programs such as mouse and CD-ROM drivers.


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IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Upper Memory/Expanded Memory

  • 640KB to 1024KB

  • Also known as Reserved Memory.

  • Upper memory is available in the form of Upper Memory Blocks (UMBs). Programs that run here include system BIOS, plug and play BIOS, video BIOS and video RAM.

  • These addresses are only available if an appropriate memory manager such as Emm386.EXE is installed during the startup process.


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IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Extended Memory

  • Beyond the 1 MB limit.

  • Generally referred to as Extended Memory.

  • This area of memory is also called Extended Memory Specification (XMS). XMS is the primary memory area used by Windows 9x. A device driver that is loaded by the OS controls this memory area. Windows 9x loads the XMS driver called Himem.sys during startup. Once loaded, Himem.sys makes extended memory available to the Windows 9x and other compatible MS-DOS programs.


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IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • High Memory Once the XMS driver is loaded, extended memory becomes available to the OS. When this happens, the first 64KB of extended memory is called the High Memory Area (HMA).

  • Typically, the XMS driver (Himem.sys) activates the DOS=HIGH option, enabling it to copy the MS-DOS kernel used by Windows 9x into the HMA. The point therefore, is that DOS uses the HMA, and by doing so, frees up more conventional memory for use by applications.


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IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Memory management tools

    • EMM386.EXE – This memory manager emulates expanded memory and makes upper memory available for use by the OS.


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IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Memory management tools

    • HIMEM.SYS – Load this device driver to convert memory starting at 1MB available as XMS or extended memory. It is loaded from the config.sys file.

    • The syntax for this command is DEVICE=C:\DOS\HIMEM.SYS.


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IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Memory management tools

    • DOS=HIGH – This option is added into the Config.sys file to tell the OS to move a portion of itself (such as MS-DOS Kernel) into the high memory area. It is usually combined with DOS=UMB to tell it to create an upper memory block using the syntax DOS=HIGH, UMB.


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IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Memory management tools

  • DEVICEHIGH/LOADHIGH –

    • DEVICEHIGH (used in Config.sys) and LOADHIGH (used in Autoexec.bat) both put upper memory blocks to use, once HIMEM.SYS and Emm386.exe have been loaded.

  • To load a mouse driver high, for example, use this

    syntax:  DEVICEHIGH=C: \DOS\MOUSE.SYS


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IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Other types of memory

    • Virtual Memory:

      • Swap File in Windows 9x

      • Page File in Windows 2000

    • Hard disk drive space is manipulated to seem like RAM.


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IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Other types of memory

    • RAM Drive Setting aside a portion of RAM to emulate a harddrive is a RAM drive.

    • For example, on a machine that has a hard drive partitioned into drives C and D, a RAM drive of 4 MB (4096 KB) can be created as E with the command:

    • DEVICE=C: \DOS\RAMDRIVE.SYS 4096


It essentials chapter 4 operating system fundamentals49
IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Memory conflicts

    • General Protection Fault or GPF

    • Memory conflicts can be caused by two memory managers running at the same time.

    • This conflict results in the blue screen of death.


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IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Real ModeReal mode memory addressing means that software, such as DOS or its applications, can address only 1,024 KB (1 MB) of RAM. In other words, real mode means that the microprocessor chip addresses the first 1,024 bytes of "conventional and upper memory" by actually assigning real addresses to real locations in memory.


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IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Protected Mode

    • Protected mode allows one program to fail without bringing down the whole system.


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IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Protected Mode

    • Protected mode allows one program to fail without bringing down the whole system.

    • The theory behind protected mode is that what happens in one area of memory has no effect on other programs.


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IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Protected Mode

    • Protected mode allows one program to fail without bringing down the whole system.

    • The theory behind protected mode is that what happens in one area of memory has no effect on other programs.

    • When running in protected mode, a program is limited to its own memory space allocation, but it can access memory above 1MB.


It essentials chapter 4 operating system fundamentals54
IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Protected Mode

    • Protected mode allows one program to fail without bringing down the whole system.

    • The theory behind protected mode is that what happens in one area of memory has no effect on other programs.

    • When running in protected mode, a program is limited to its own memory space allocation, but it can access memory above 1MB.

    • Just about every operating system other than DOS runs in protected mode.


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IT Essentials-Chapter 4Operating System Fundamentals

  • Before you take your online exam review the common DOS commands.


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