THE CAMERA. Literally, room in Latin. The instrument with which photographs are taken, consisting, at least, of a light-tight box, a lens which admits focused light, and some device for holding the film in position. In a digital camera, the film is replaced by a light sensitive digital sensor.
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Light passing through a lens is inverted. The object photographed is turned upside down on the film or digital sensor. In a SLR camera, a set of mirrors called a “pentaprism” corrects this inversion.
During the exposure, the mirror in the SLR camera body flips up to allows light to pass through to the film or digital sensor.
(size of the lens opening) controls the brightness of light that reaches the film
“STOP” – refers to a change in exposure, whether the shutter speed or aperture is changed
one “stop” more exposure means to double the light reaching the film
one “stop” less exposure means to half the light reaching the film
(only up to 1/500 sec.)
-Each shutter speed is marked as the bottom part of the fraction of a second that the shutter remains open
2 (1/2 second)
8 (1/8 second)
*1/60 hand held
-Each full stop shutter setting is half or double the time of the next one
B (bulb) – shutter stays open as long as the release button is pushed down
T (time) – opens the shutter with one press of the release, and closes with another
Slow shutter speed Fast shutter speed
Each f/stop number can be though of as the bottom part of a fraction
The larger the f/stop number, the smaller the lens opening
f/11 is a smaller opening than f/4
Each full stop aperture setting allows half or double the amount of light as the next one
f/1.4 f/2 f/2.8 f/4 f/5.6 f/8 f/11 f/16 f/22
Smaller aperture (f/22) Larger aperture (f/4)
deep depth of field shallow depth of field
Shallow Depth of Field
Deep Depth of Field
F stop f/22 f/16 f/11 f/8 f/5.6 f/4 f/2.8
shutter speed 1/4 1/8 1/15 1/30 1/60 1/125 1/250