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THE CAMERA. Literally, room in Latin. The instrument with which photographs are taken, consisting, at least, of a light-tight box, a lens which admits focused light, and some device for holding the film in position. In a digital camera, the film is replaced by a light sensitive digital sensor.

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the camera
THE CAMERA
  • Literally, room in Latin. The instrument with which photographs are taken, consisting, at least, of a light-tight box, a lens which admits focused light, and some device for holding the film in position. In a digital camera, the film is replaced by a light sensitive digital sensor.
slide3
LENS

Light passing through a lens is inverted. The object photographed is turned upside down on the film or digital sensor. In a SLR camera, a set of mirrors called a “pentaprism” corrects this inversion.

During the exposure, the mirror in the SLR camera body flips up to allows light to pass through to the film or digital sensor.

single lens reflex slr camera
SINGLE-LENS REFLEX (SLR) CAMERA
  • A single-lens reflex camera shows you the scene directly through the lens by employing a series of mirrors.
controlling the amount of light
CONTROLLING THE AMOUNT OF LIGHT

APERTURE

(size of the lens opening) controls the brightness of light that reaches the film

  • SHUTTER
    • Controls the amount of light by the length of time it remains open

“STOP” – refers to a change in exposure, whether the shutter speed or aperture is changed

one “stop” more exposure means to double the light reaching the film

one “stop” less exposure means to half the light reaching the film

shutter
SHUTTER
  • Leaf Shutter
    • Located inside the lens
    • Quieter than a focal-plane shutter
    • Slower shutter speeds than a focal-plane shutter

(only up to 1/500 sec.)

shutter1
SHUTTER
  • Focal Plane Shutter
    • Located inside the camera body, directly in front of the film plane
    • Allows for faster shutter speeds

(1/8000 sec.)

    • When using a flash, must use slower shutter speed
shutter speed
SHUTTER SPEED

-Each shutter speed is marked as the bottom part of the fraction of a second that the shutter remains open

2 (1/2 second)

8 (1/8 second)

Slower

blurred motion

Faster

freezes motion

*1/60 hand held

-Each full stop shutter setting is half or double the time of the next one

B (bulb) – shutter stays open as long as the release button is pushed down

T (time) – opens the shutter with one press of the release, and closes with another

shutter speed1
SHUTTER SPEED

Slow shutter speed Fast shutter speed

shutter speed2
SHUTTER SPEED
  • Panning
    • During the exposure, the camera is moved in the same direction as the subject.
    • Resulting in a reasonably sharp subject and a blurred background
aperture
APERTURE

Each f/stop number can be though of as the bottom part of a fraction

The larger the f/stop number, the smaller the lens opening

f/11 is a smaller opening than f/4

Each full stop aperture setting allows half or double the amount of light as the next one

f/1.4 f/2 f/2.8 f/4 f/5.6 f/8 f/11 f/16 f/22

aperture2
APERTURE
  • The area from near to far in a scene that is acceptably sharp in a photograph
depth of field
DEPTH OF FIELD
  • The smaller the aperture size, the more that a scene will be sharp from near to far (deep depth of field).
  • The larger the aperture size, the less that a scene will be sharp from near to far (shallow depth of field).
    • f/22 provides more depth of field than f/4
depth of field3
DEPTH OF FIELD

Smaller aperture (f/22) Larger aperture (f/4)

deep depth of field shallow depth of field

depth of field4
DEPTH OF FIELD

Shallow Depth of Field

Deep Depth of Field

shutter and aperture
SHUTTER and APERTURE
  • To get a correctly exposed picture, you need a combination of shutter speed and aperture
    • Each shutter speed lets in twice as much light as the next faster speed
      • 1/60 lets in 2x as much light as 1/125
    • Each aperture setting lets in twice as much light as the next smaller opening (larger-numbered setting)
      • f/4 lets in 2x as much light as f/5.6
exposure1
EXPOSURE

F stop f/22 f/16 f/11 f/8 f/5.6 f/4 f/2.8

shutter speed 1/4 1/8 1/15 1/30 1/60 1/125 1/250

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