Chapter 9 cellular respiration
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Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration. Starting Questions. How are the products of photosynthesis and respiration related? The products of photosynthesis are the starting materials for respiration. What kinds of organisms undergo cellular respiration?

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Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration

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Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration

392 3/1/11


Starting Questions

How are the products of photosynthesis and

respiration related?

  • The products of photosynthesis are the starting materials for respiration.

    What kinds of organisms undergo cellular

    respiration?

  • All organisms, including photosynthetic organisms, undergo cellular respiration as long as oxygen is available.

392 3/1/11


9-1 Key Concepts

  • What is cellular respiration?

  • What happens during the process of glycolysis?

  • What are the two main types of fermentation?

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Chemical Energy and Food

  • Food source: sugars such as glucose

  • 1 calorie = amount of energy needed to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius

  • 1 Calorie = 1 kilocalorie = 1000 calories

  • Energy is released slowly from glucose and other foods using cellular respiration.

392 3/1/11


 Cellular Respiration: An Overview

Section 9-1

Mitochondrion

Electrons carried in NADH

Electrons carried in NADH and FADH2

Pyruvic acid

Krebs Cycle

Electron Transport Chain

Glucose

Glycolysis

Mitochondrion

Cytoplasm

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Aerobic Respiration

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Chemical Pathways

Section 9-1

Glucose

Krebs cycle

Electrontransport

Glycolysis

Alcohol or lactic acid

Fermentation (without oxygen)

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Cellular Respiration

  • The process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen

  • 6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy (ATP)

  • oxygen + glucose carbon dioxide + water + energy

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Net vs. Gross

  • Gross  amount of product made

    • Ex: Made $20.00 babysitting

  • Net  amount of product made minus amount of product used

    • Ex: Made $15.00 babysitting

      • Spent $5.00 for gas to get to babysitting job

      • Made $20.00 babysitting

      • $20.00 - $5.00 = net $15.00


Glycolysis

  • 2 ATP molecules must be added to get the reaction started

    Can be considered activation energy

  • 4 ATP molecules are produced (4 – 2 = net gain of 2 ATP)

  • 2 NADH molecules are also created

    • NADH

      • Electron carrier =  NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)

      • NAD+ + H+ + 2 high energy electrons  NADH

      • Takes electrons to other parts of respiration

  • Glycolysis nets  2 ATP, 2 NADH, and 2 pyruvic acids


Glycolysis

Glucose

2 Pyruvic acid

To the electron transport chain

Glycolysis nets  2 ATP, 2 NADH, and 2 pyruvic acids


Advantages

 Occurs quickly

Can produce 1000s of ATP in a few milliseconds

 Does not require oxygen

Can occur w/o oxygen

Disadvantages

 Net gain of only 2 ATP

 NAD+ become filled with electrons quickly

Can’t make more ATP

Glycolysis: Advantages vs. Disadvantages


Anaerobic Respiration = Fermentation

an = “without” aerobic = “air”

  • Occurs afterglycolysis only if no oxygen is available

  • NADH from glycolysis used, turned back into NAD+

    • Goes back to glycolysis

    • Keeps glycolysis going

    • Generate as many ATP as possible

      Important because it recycles the NAD+ molecules so that the cell can continue to make energy


Alcoholic Fermentation

  •  In the absence of oxygen, pyruvic acid is broken down to produce alcohol and carbon dioxide

    • Carried out by yeasts and a few other micoorganisms

  • pyruvic acid + NADH → alcohol + CO2 + NAD+

  •  Used to make alcoholic beverages and to cause bread dough to rise


Lactic Acid Fermentation

  •  In many cells, the pyruvic acid that accumulates due to glycolysis is converted to lactic acid.

  • pyruvic acid + NADH → lactic acid + NAD+

  •  Occurs in muscles during heavy exercise

    • Lactic acid buildup in muscles causes painful, burning sensation = why muscles feel sore

  •  Prokaryotes also produce lactic acid

    • Used to make cheese, yogurt, buttermilk, sour cream, pickles, sauerkraut, and kimchi.


 Lactic Acid Fermentation

Section 9-1

Lactic acid

Glucose

Pyruvic acid

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Glycolysis

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Review Questions

  • 1. What is cellular respiration? What is the equation for it?

  • 2. What are the 3 stages of cellular respiration in order?

  • 3. What is glycolysis and where does it take place in a cell? What are the products of glycolysis?

  • 4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of glycolysis?

  • 5. What is anaerobic respiration and what is its purpose?

  • 6. Compare and contrast alcoholic fermentation with lactic acid fermentation.


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