Chapter 7
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Chapter 7. Cells and Organelles. Background. Every living thing is made of cells Robert Hooke coined the term “cells” Antonie van Leeuwenhoek discovered the 1st living cell. Cell Theory . The Cell Theory states that: All organisms are composed of one or more cells.

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Chapter 7

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Chapter 7

Cells and Organelles


  • Every living thing is made of cells

  • Robert Hooke coined the term “cells”

  • Antonie van Leeuwenhoek discovered the 1stliving cell

Cell Theory

  • TheCell Theory states that:

    • All organisms are composed of one or more cells.

    • The cell is the basic unit of organization in all organisms.

    • All cells come from pre-existing cells

Levels of organization

  • Smallest living unit is the cell

Types of cells

  • Two types of cells

    • Prokaryotes – simple cells, bacteria

    • Eukaryotes – complex cells, animal and plant

Inside the cell

  • Inside the cell there are smaller parts called organelles

    • Organelle means ‘little organ’

Plasma Membrane

  • The plasma membrane, aka the cell membrane, surrounds the cell

    • It is present in all cells

    • Function – controls what enters and leaves the cell

      • Selectively permeable

      • – selects what moves

        through it

Plasma membrane

  • Structure

    • Phospholipidbilayer

Cell Wall

  • Surrounds some cells

    • Plant cells, fungi cells, and bacteria cells

  • Tough and ridged

  • Made of cellulose


  • Controls everything in the cell

    • Reproduction, movement, eating

  • Only present in eukaryotic cells

  • Contains all genetic information


  • Surrounding the nucleus is the nuclear envelope

  • Inside the nucleus is the nucleolus

    • The nucleolus produces an organelle called the ribosomes


  • Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis

  • Found all over the cell

    • In cytoplasm

    • On Rough ER

Endoplasmic Reticulum

  • Two types: smooth and rough

  • Smooth – stores lipids

  • Rough – after the ribosomes make proteins the rough ER packages them in vesicles to move around, or out of, the cell

    Rough because it is covered in ribosomes

Golgi Apparatus

  • Modifies and sorts proteins before they are sent out of the cell

  • Notice increased

    Surface area

  • Stacked like


Production of Proteins

  • Each organelle has a role to play in the production of proteins


  • Main function is storage

  • In both plant and animal cells, but they are much larger in plant cells


  • Produces energy for the cell

  • Does this through a process called cellular respiration

  • Many folds to increase surface area called Cristae


  • Produce sugar, or food, by using light energy

    • This process is called photosynthesis

  • Found in plant cells and protist cells


  • The lysosomes job is to digest things that are no longer needed by the cell

    • Contain special enzymes to

      do this

Animal VS Plant Cell

Stem cells

  • Eukaryotic organisms begin as a mass of cells

    • Each cell has the same DNA so how do we end up with hundreds of cell types?

    • It has to do with

      the DNA!!

Stem Cells

  • Cell differentiation- happens only specific parts of the DNA are activated.

    • the parts of the DNA that are activated determine the function and specialized structure of a cell.

  • Once a cell is differentiated it can notbe reversed.

Stem Cells

  • Stem cells have not differentiated yet

  • They have the ability to become any cell!

    • Embryonic stem cells – found in the embryo

    • Adult stems cells – found in adult living organisms (example – bone marrow)

    • Both types have potential to be come specialized cells

    • Important because it can turn into ANY cell!!!!


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