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Bruce A. Bracken, PhD. About the Author. Bruce A. Bracken, PhD Professor The College of William & Mary School of Education P.O. Box 8795 Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795 757.221.1712 [email protected] http://babrac.people.wm.edu/. Presentation Outline.

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About the Author

Bruce A. Bracken, PhD

Professor

The College of William & Mary

School of Education

P.O. Box 8795

Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795

757.221.1712

[email protected]

http://babrac.people.wm.edu/


Presentation outline
Presentation Outline

Multidimensional Adjustment and Assessment of Students’ Interpersonal Relations

Clinical Assessment of Interpersonal Relations (CAIR)

  • Development Goals

  • Key Features

  • Description: Scales, Support Model, Relationship Characteristics

  • Norm Characteristics and Technical Adequacy

  • Administration and Scoring

  • Interpretation

  • Case Study


Multifaceted nature of adjustment
Multifaceted Nature of Adjustment

  • Multidimensional, context-dependent model of adjustment, with six primary life domains:

  • Three intra-personal domains

    • Affect

    • Competence

    • Physical

  • Three interpersonal domains

    • Social

    • Academic

    • Family


Developmental nature of psychosocial adjustment
Developmental Nature of PsychosocialAdjustment

  • Adjustment becomes increasingly differentiated with age

  • Life domains differentiate as a function of exposure


Assessment triangulation
AssessmentTriangulation

Other Sources- Direct Observation - Indirect Approaches (e.g., Projective Techniques) - Background Information - Clinical Interview

Behavioral and Psychosocial

Adjustment

Third-Party Report- CAB Parent/Teacher Social Skills Scale

- Sociometry

Self-Report

- Clinical Assessment of Interpersonal Relations


Cair clinical assessment of interpersonal relations

CAIRClinical Assessment of Interpersonal Relations


Cair features
CAIR Features

  • Self-report (student completed)

  • Ages 9 to 19 years

  • Third grade reading level

  • 35 items repeated on each of five scales

  • • Male Peers, Female Peers • Mother, Father • Teacher

  • Reflects three interpersonal domains

    • Social

    • Family

    • Academic


Cair features1
CAIR Features

  • Twenty - minute completion time

  • Theoretically based

    • Four dimensions of relationship support

    • Fifteen relationship characteristics

  • Allows for prorating

    • Single-parent situations

    • Skipped Items

  • Norm-referenced and Ipsative interpretation options

  • Mandatory element of Emotional Disturbance diagnosis


Cair features2
CAIR Features

  • Uses a Four-point Item response format

    • Strongly Agree

    • Agree

    • Disagree

    • Strongly Disagree

  • Provides score reporting consistent with CAB, CAD, CAT and most personality tests

    • Standard scores (T-scores)

    • Percentile ranks

    • Confidence intervals

    • Qualitative classifications

    • Graphical profile display


  • Constructing the cair a multidimensional multi step multi year process

    Constructing the CAIR:A Multidimensional, Multi-Step, Multi-Year Process


    Interpersonal relations defined

    DEFINITION

    “The unique and relatively stable behavioral pattern that exists or develops between two people as a result of individual and extra-individual influences.”

    INTERPERSONAL SUPPORT

    • Esteem Support

    • Informational Support

    • Instrumental Support

    • Social Support

    15 RELATIONSHIP CHARACTERISTICS

    • Companionship

    • Emotional Support

    • Guidance

    • Emotional Comfort

    • Reliance

    • Understanding

    • Conflict Resolution

    • Identification

    • Respect

    • Empathy

    • Intimacy

    • Affect

    • Acceptance

    • Shared Values

    INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS DEFINED


    Serious emotional disturbance defined
    Serious Emotional Disturbance Defined

    Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), Public Law 101-476 defines SED as: “…one or more of the following characteristicsover a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affectseducational performance–

    (A) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual,sensory, or health factors;

    (B) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonalrelationships with peers and teachers;

    (C) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances;

    (D) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression;

    (E) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated withpersonal or school problems."


    Item construction considerations
    Item ConstructionConsiderations

    • Self-report measure of students’ perceptions of relationship qualities using Likert format

    • Four-point forced-choice scale to avoid noncommittal responses

    • Consistent item format for all five scales

    • Both positively and negatively connoted conditions depicted

    • Simple language, third-grade reading level


    Item construction considerations1
    Item ConstructionConsiderations

    6. Items reflect 15 core relationship qualities

    7. Item content universal to all 9 – 19 year-olds

    8. Non-timed instrument

    9. CAIR can be administered by paraprofessionals, but must be interpreted by professionals

    10. Items collectively sample the universe of content and contexts associated with relationships


    Psychiatric conditions related to interpersonal relations

    Adjustment Disorder - with Anxiety - with Conduct Disturbance

    Antisocial Personality

    Attention Deficit Disorder

    Autistic Disorder

    Avoidant Disorder

    Avoidant Personality

    Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Borderline Personality

    Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

    Communication Disorder

    Conduct Disorder

    Delusional Disorder

    Depression

    Psychiatric Conditions Related to Interpersonal Relations


    Psychiatric conditions related to interpersonal relations1

    Dysthymic Disorder

    Histrionic Personality

    Identity Disorder

    Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Learning Disorders

    Narcissistic Personality

    Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Paranoid Personality

    Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    Schizoid Personality

    Schizophrenia

    Schizotypal Disorder

    Sexual Disorders

    Social Phobia

    Specific Phobias

    Psychiatric Conditions Related to Interpersonal Relations


    Behavioral correlates of interpersonal relations
    Behavioral Correlates of Interpersonal Relations

    • Adolescent and adult psychosocial adjustment(Parker & Asher, 1987)

    • Future sex role development(Fagot, 1977)

    • Expression of intimacy(Buhrmester, 1990)

    • Moral development(Berndt, McCartney, Caparulo, & Moore, 1984)

    • Emotional security and understanding of the social structure (Panella, Cooper, & Henggeler, 1982)

    • Childhood and adolescent aggression(Dodge, Coie, & Brakke, 1982; Hartup, 1979)


    Behavioral correlates of interpersonal relations1
    Behavioral Correlates of Interpersonal Relations

    • Juvenile crime(Parker & Asher, 1987)

    • Risk of dropping out of school(Elliott & Voss, 1974)

    • Behavioral disturbance(Panella & Henggeler, 1986)

    • Learning disabilities(Bryan, 1974, 1982; Dishion, 1990)

    • Mentally retardation (Gottlieb, Semmel, & Veldman, 1978)

    • Social isolation(Wanlass & Prinz, 1982)

    • Bad conduct discharge from the military(Roff, 1961)

    • Emotional Disturbance (IDEA)


    Intra individual factors related to interpersonal relations
    Intra-individual Factors Related to Interpersonal Relations

    • Position in birth order(Schacter, 1964: Sells & Roff, 1964)

    • Parents' style of nurturance and providing care(Baumrind, 1967, 1971; Hinde & Tamplin, 1983; MacDonald & Parke, 1984)

    • Parental mental health(Becker, Peterson, Hellmer, Shoemaker, & Quay, 1959; Forehand, Long, Brody, & Fauber, 1986; Glueck & Glueck, 1950; Maccoby & Martin, 1983, 1990; Phares & Compas, 1992)

    • Marital conflict and divorce between parents(Emery, 1982; Gottman & Katz, 1989; Grych & Fincham, 1992; Hetherington, 1979; McCord, McCord, & Thurber, 1962)

    • Parent-child conflict(Montemayor, 1982)

    • Physical or sexual abuse or maltreatment(George & Main, 1979; Kinard, 1980; Reidy, 1977)


    Inter individual factors related to interpersonal relations
    Inter-individual Factors Related to Interpersonal Relations

    • Physical attractiveness (Cavoir & Dokecki, 1973; Dion & Berscheid, 1974; Kennedy, 1990; Langlois & Downs, 1979)

    • Physical health(Lotyczewski, Cowen, & Weissberg, 1986)

    • Unusualness of the child's name(McDavid & Farari, 1966)

    • Ability to express humor(McGhee, 1980)

    • Perceived social competence(Gresham & Elliott, 1989)


    Technical quality
    Technical Quality

    • Norms

    • Reliability

      • Internal Consistency

      • Stability

    • Validity

      • Content Validity

      • Developmental Validation

      • Construct Validity

      • Contrasted Groups Validity

      • Independent Research Efforts



    Standardization sample1
    Standardization Sample

    Sample Sample Sample United States

    Characteristic Size Percentage* Percentage

    U.S. Region

    Northeast 173 6.93 20.20

    South 1310 52.50 35.00

    North Central 563 22.57 23.90

    West 449 17.99 20.90

    * Percentages are computed on the number of cases coded, with missing data omitted from calculations. Total sample size = 2501 subjects.


    U s and cair family constellations
    U.S. and CAIRFamily Constellations

    Family U.S. CAIR

    TypePopulation Sample

    Intact Family 65% 57%

    Foster Home 1% 1%

    Reconstituted 10% 14%

    Single-Parent 22% 17%

    CAIR Sample does not sum to 100% due to unreported data. Single-parent families may be due to never married, separation, divorce, or death of parent.


    Cair scale internal consistency and stability
    CAIR Scale Internal Consistencyand Stability

    .96



    Cair theoretical model
    CAIR Theoretical Model


    Developmental validation students relationships with their parents
    Developmental Validation: Students’ Relationshipswith their Parents


    Developmental validation students relationships with their peers
    Developmental Validation: Students’ Relationshipswith their Peers


    Developmental validation students relationships with their teachers
    Developmental Validation: Students’ Relationshipswith their Teachers




    Construct validity factor analysis
    Construct Validity:Factor Analysis

    Factor One:

    Father Scale

    Factor Three:

    Mother Scale


    Construct validity factor analysis1
    Construct Validity:Factor Analysis

    Factor Four:

    Male Peers Scale

    Factor Five:

    Female Peers Scale

    Two Items with Primary

    (non-significant) Loadings

    on Teachers’ Scale


    Construct validity factor analysis2
    Construct Validity:Factor Analysis

    Factor Two:

    Teachers Scale








    Summary of independent cair research
    Summary of Independent CAIR Research

    Clinic Samples:

    • Poorer relations on all scales; diminished self-concepts

      Runaways:

    • Poorer Mother, Father, Teacher relations; exaggerated opposite-sex Peer relations

      Delinquents:

    • Poorer Mother relations; 81.5% classification rate; 88.4% non-delinquent classification rate

      Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Adolescents:

    • Poorer Mother, Father, Male and Female Peer relations

      Parenting Style:

    • Students with Authoritative Mothers reported better Mother relations than students with Authoritarian or Permissive Mothers



    Clinical interpretation
    Clinical Interpretation

    Quantitative and Qualitative Interpretation Process

    5-Step Interpretation Process

    • Consider CAIR total scale score (i.e., Total Relationship Index)

    • Consider CAIR scale scores individually and in combination

    • Compare scale scores with data acquired from different sources (e.g., sociometry, CAB Social Skills)

    • Explore 15 relationship characteristics

    • Contrast student’s performance on the CAIR in light of other available information (e.g., referral, background)


    Cair relationship classifications
    CAIR Relationship Classifications

    CAIR Relationships are classified by descriptive categories related to degree of relationship strength or weakness

    > 70 = Significant Relationship Strength

    60 to 69 = Mild Relationship Strength

    40 to 59 = Normal Range

    30 to 39 = Mild Relationship Weakness

    < 29 = Significant Relationship Weakness


    Ipsative interpretation deviations from average scale score
    Ipsative Interpretation:Deviations from Average Scale Score

    Scale p < .05 p < .01

    Mother 8 9

    Father 7 9

    Male Peers 8 10

    Female Peers 8 10

    Teacher 9 11


    Ipsative interpretation example
    Ipsative Interpretation:Example

    CAIR Scale Mean Ipsative

    Scale Score d Classification

    Mother 69 +10 Strength

    Father 53 -6 Weakness

    Male Peers 40 -19 Weakness

    Female Peers 62 +3 Average

    Teacher 69 +10 Strength

    Mean Score 59



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