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Bruce A. Bracken, PhD. About the Author. Bruce A. Bracken, PhD Professor The College of William & Mary School of Education P.O. Box 8795 Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795 757.221.1712 Presentation Outline.

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Bruce a bracken phd

Bruce A. Bracken, PhD

Bruce a bracken phd

About the Author

Bruce A. Bracken, PhD


The College of William & Mary

School of Education

P.O. Box 8795

Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795


Presentation outline

Presentation Outline

Multidimensional Adjustment and Assessment of Students’ Interpersonal Relations

Clinical Assessment of Interpersonal Relations (CAIR)

  • Development Goals

  • Key Features

  • Description: Scales, Support Model, Relationship Characteristics

  • Norm Characteristics and Technical Adequacy

  • Administration and Scoring

  • Interpretation

  • Case Study

Multifaceted nature of adjustment

Multifaceted Nature of Adjustment

  • Multidimensional, context-dependent model of adjustment, with six primary life domains:

  • Three intra-personal domains

    • Affect

    • Competence

    • Physical

  • Three interpersonal domains

    • Social

    • Academic

    • Family

Developmental nature of psychosocial adjustment

Developmental Nature of PsychosocialAdjustment

  • Adjustment becomes increasingly differentiated with age

  • Life domains differentiate as a function of exposure

Assessment triangulation


Other Sources- Direct Observation - Indirect Approaches (e.g., Projective Techniques) - Background Information - Clinical Interview

Behavioral and Psychosocial


Third-Party Report- CAB Parent/Teacher Social Skills Scale

- Sociometry


- Clinical Assessmentof Interpersonal Relations

Cair clinical assessment of interpersonal relations

CAIRClinical Assessment of Interpersonal Relations

Cair features

CAIR Features

  • Self-report (student completed)

  • Ages 9 to 19 years

  • Third grade reading level

  • 35 items repeated on each of five scales

  • •Male Peers, Female Peers•Mother, Father•Teacher

  • Reflects three interpersonal domains

    • Social

    • Family

    • Academic

Cair features1

CAIR Features

  • Twenty - minute completion time

  • Theoretically based

    • Four dimensions of relationship support

    • Fifteen relationship characteristics

  • Allows for prorating

    • Single-parent situations

    • Skipped Items

  • Norm-referenced and Ipsative interpretation options

  • Mandatory element of Emotional Disturbance diagnosis

Cair features2

CAIR Features

  • Uses a Four-point Item response format

    • Strongly Agree

    • Agree

    • Disagree

    • Strongly Disagree

  • Provides score reporting consistent with CAB, CAD, CAT and most personality tests

    • Standard scores (T-scores)

    • Percentile ranks

    • Confidence intervals

    • Qualitative classifications

    • Graphical profile display

  • Constructing the cair a multidimensional multi step multi year process

    Constructing the CAIR:A Multidimensional, Multi-Step, Multi-Year Process

    Interpersonal relations defined


    “The unique and relatively stable behavioral pattern that exists or develops between two people as a result of individual and extra-individual influences.”


    •Esteem Support

    •Informational Support

    •Instrumental Support

    •Social Support



    •Emotional Support


    •Emotional Comfort



    •Conflict Resolution







    •Shared Values


    Serious emotional disturbance defined

    Serious Emotional Disturbance Defined

    Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), Public Law 101-476 defines SED as: “…one or more of the following characteristicsover a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affectseducational performance–

    (A) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual,sensory, or health factors;

    (B) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonalrelationships with peers and teachers;

    (C) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances;

    (D) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression;

    (E) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated withpersonal or school problems."

    Item construction considerations

    Item ConstructionConsiderations

    • Self-report measure of students’ perceptions of relationship qualities using Likert format

    • Four-point forced-choice scale to avoid noncommittal responses

    • Consistent item format for all five scales

    • Both positively and negatively connoted conditions depicted

    • Simple language, third-grade reading level

    Item construction considerations1

    Item ConstructionConsiderations

    6.Items reflect 15 core relationship qualities

    7.Item content universal to all 9 – 19 year-olds

    8.Non-timed instrument

    9.CAIR can be administered by paraprofessionals, but must be interpreted by professionals

    10.Items collectively sample the universe of content and contexts associated with relationships

    Psychiatric conditions related to interpersonal relations

    Adjustment Disorder - with Anxiety - with Conduct Disturbance

    Antisocial Personality

    Attention Deficit Disorder

    Autistic Disorder

    Avoidant Disorder

    Avoidant Personality

    Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Borderline Personality

    Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

    Communication Disorder

    Conduct Disorder

    Delusional Disorder


    Psychiatric Conditions Related to Interpersonal Relations

    Psychiatric conditions related to interpersonal relations1

    Dysthymic Disorder

    Histrionic Personality

    Identity Disorder

    Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Learning Disorders

    Narcissistic Personality

    Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Paranoid Personality

    Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    Schizoid Personality


    Schizotypal Disorder

    Sexual Disorders

    Social Phobia

    Specific Phobias

    Psychiatric Conditions Related to Interpersonal Relations

    Behavioral correlates of interpersonal relations

    Behavioral Correlates of Interpersonal Relations

    • Adolescent and adult psychosocial adjustment(Parker & Asher, 1987)

    • Future sex role development(Fagot, 1977)

    • Expression of intimacy(Buhrmester, 1990)

    • Moral development(Berndt, McCartney, Caparulo, & Moore, 1984)

    • Emotional security and understanding of the social structure (Panella, Cooper, & Henggeler, 1982)

    • Childhood and adolescent aggression(Dodge, Coie, & Brakke, 1982; Hartup, 1979)

    Behavioral correlates of interpersonal relations1

    Behavioral Correlates of Interpersonal Relations

    • Juvenile crime(Parker & Asher, 1987)

    • Risk of dropping out of school(Elliott & Voss, 1974)

    • Behavioral disturbance(Panella & Henggeler, 1986)

    • Learning disabilities(Bryan, 1974, 1982; Dishion, 1990)

    • Mentally retardation (Gottlieb, Semmel, & Veldman, 1978)

    • Social isolation(Wanlass & Prinz, 1982)

    • Bad conduct discharge from the military(Roff, 1961)

    • Emotional Disturbance (IDEA)

    Intra individual factors related to interpersonal relations

    Intra-individual Factors Related to Interpersonal Relations

    • Position in birth order(Schacter, 1964: Sells & Roff, 1964)

    • Parents' style of nurturance and providing care(Baumrind, 1967, 1971; Hinde & Tamplin, 1983; MacDonald & Parke, 1984)

    • Parental mental health(Becker, Peterson, Hellmer, Shoemaker, & Quay, 1959; Forehand, Long, Brody, & Fauber, 1986; Glueck & Glueck, 1950; Maccoby & Martin, 1983, 1990; Phares & Compas, 1992)

    • Marital conflict and divorce between parents(Emery, 1982; Gottman & Katz, 1989; Grych & Fincham, 1992; Hetherington, 1979; McCord, McCord, & Thurber, 1962)

    • Parent-child conflict(Montemayor, 1982)

    • Physical or sexual abuse or maltreatment(George & Main, 1979; Kinard, 1980; Reidy, 1977)

    Inter individual factors related to interpersonal relations

    Inter-individual Factors Related to Interpersonal Relations

    • Physical attractiveness (Cavoir & Dokecki, 1973; Dion & Berscheid, 1974; Kennedy, 1990; Langlois & Downs, 1979)

    • Physical health(Lotyczewski, Cowen, & Weissberg, 1986)

    • Unusualness of the child's name(McDavid & Farari, 1966)

    • Ability to express humor(McGhee, 1980)

    • Perceived social competence(Gresham & Elliott, 1989)

    Technical quality

    Technical Quality

    • Norms

    • Reliability

      • Internal Consistency

      • Stability

    • Validity

      • Content Validity

      • Developmental Validation

      • Construct Validity

      • Contrasted Groups Validity

      • Independent Research Efforts

    Standardization sample

    Standardization Sample

    Standardization sample1

    Standardization Sample

    Sample Sample Sample United States

    Characteristic Size Percentage* Percentage

    U.S. Region

    Northeast 173 6.9320.20

    South 131052.5035.00

    North Central56322.5723.90

    West 44917.9920.90

    * Percentages are computed on the number of cases coded, with missing data omitted from calculations. Total sample size = 2501 subjects.

    U s and cair family constellations

    U.S. and CAIRFamily Constellations

    Family U.S.CAIR

    TypePopulation Sample

    Intact Family65%57%

    Foster Home 1% 1%



    CAIR Sample does not sum to 100% due to unreported data. Single-parent families may be due to never married, separation, divorce, or death of parent.

    Cair scale internal consistency and stability

    CAIR Scale Internal Consistencyand Stability


    Cair theoretical foundation content validity

    CAIR Theoretical Foundation:Content Validity

    Cair theoretical model

    CAIR Theoretical Model

    Developmental validation students relationships with their parents

    Developmental Validation: Students’ Relationshipswith their Parents

    Developmental validation students relationships with their peers

    Developmental Validation: Students’ Relationshipswith their Peers

    Developmental validation students relationships with their teachers

    Developmental Validation: Students’ Relationshipswith their Teachers

    Female students relationships by race

    Female Students’ Relationships by Race

    Male students relationships by race

    Male Students’ Relationships by Race

    Construct validity factor analysis

    Construct Validity:Factor Analysis

    Factor One:

    Father Scale

    Factor Three:

    Mother Scale

    Construct validity factor analysis1

    Construct Validity:Factor Analysis

    Factor Four:

    Male Peers Scale

    Factor Five:

    Female Peers Scale

    Two Items with Primary

    (non-significant) Loadings

    on Teachers’ Scale

    Construct validity factor analysis2

    Construct Validity:Factor Analysis

    Factor Two:

    Teachers Scale

    Cair multidimensional self concept correlations

    CAIR – Multidimensional Self-Concept Correlations

    Cair cat c parent completed correlations

    CAIR – CAT-C Parent-Completed Correlations

    Cair cat c child completed correlations

    CAIR – CAT- C Child-CompletedCorrelations

    Cair cad correlations

    CAIR – CAD Correlations

    Cair cab scale correlations

    CAIR – CAB Scale Correlations

    Cair cab externalizing correlations

    CAIR – CAB Externalizing Correlations

    Summary of independent cair research

    Summary of Independent CAIR Research

    Clinic Samples:

    • Poorer relations on all scales; diminished self-concepts


    • Poorer Mother, Father, Teacher relations; exaggerated opposite-sex Peer relations


    • Poorer Mother relations; 81.5% classification rate; 88.4% non-delinquent classification rate

      Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Adolescents:

    • Poorer Mother, Father, Male and Female Peer relations

      Parenting Style:

    • Students with Authoritative Mothers reported better Mother relations than students with Authoritarian or Permissive Mothers

    Bruce a bracken phd

    Interpreting the CAIR

    Clinical interpretation

    Clinical Interpretation

    Quantitative and Qualitative Interpretation Process

    5-Step Interpretation Process

    • Consider CAIR total scale score (i.e., Total Relationship Index)

    • Consider CAIR scale scores individually and in combination

    • Compare scale scores with data acquired from different sources (e.g., sociometry, CAB Social Skills)

    • Explore 15 relationship characteristics

    • Contrast student’s performance on the CAIR in light of other available information (e.g., referral, background)

    Cair relationship classifications

    CAIR Relationship Classifications

    CAIR Relationships are classified by descriptive categories related to degree of relationship strength or weakness

    > 70 = Significant Relationship Strength

    60 to 69 = Mild Relationship Strength

    40 to 59 = Normal Range

    30 to 39= Mild Relationship Weakness

    < 29 = Significant Relationship Weakness

    Ipsative interpretation deviations from average scale score

    Ipsative Interpretation:Deviations from Average Scale Score

    Scalep < .05p < .01



    Male Peers810

    Female Peers810


    Ipsative interpretation example

    Ipsative Interpretation:Example




    Father53 -6Weakness

    Male Peers40-19Weakness

    Female Peers62 +3Average


    Mean Score59

    Calculation of normative and ipsative profiles

    Calculation of Normative and Ipsative Profiles

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