The characteristics common to all living organisms
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The Characteristics Common to All Living Organisms. Life Activities. All living things are made of matter: Matter . Anything that takes up space and has mass 2 Types of matter: 1. Inorganic 2. Organic. Review of basic science terms. Organic.

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The Characteristics Common to All Living Organisms

Life Activities


All living things are made of matter:

Matter

  • Anything that takes up space and has mass

  • 2 Types of matter:

  • 1. Inorganic

  • 2. Organic

Review of basic science terms


Organic

  • Any matter that contains the elements Carbon and Hydrogen (exception – CO & CO2)

  • All living organisms are carbon based life forms

  • Matter that is living or was once part of a living organism is most likely organic

    • Ex. Wool, Honey, Cotton, Sugar, Wood


Inorganic

  • Any matter that does not have carbon (except – CO & CO2)

  • Examples

  • H2O – Water

  • NaCl – Salt

  • Sand, Gold, Iron, Lead


M – Metabolism

R – Regulation

S – Synthesis

T – Transport

R – Respiration

A – Assimilation

N – Nutrition

G – Growth

E – Excretion

R - Reproduction

Mr. Stranger(The activities all living organisms perform)


Metabolism

  • All the chemical reactions in your body

  • Example: Burning off energy

    • A higher metabolism burns off energy faster

    • A slower metabolism burns off energy slower

      (and if food consumed is not burned, it is stored for later)


Regulation

  • The maintaining of Homeostasis:

    • A constant internal environment

  • Examples:

    • Warm blooded animals create their own heat to regulate their body temperature

    • Cold blooded change their behavior to bask in the sun to regulate their body temperature


Synthesis

  • Combining simple substance to make complex substances

  • Example: Combine simple proteins to make muscle


Transport

  • The movement of substances within an organism

    • Unicellular:

      • Moving substances into and out of the cell using diffusion

    • Multicellular:

      • Same as unicellular, but also requires a circulatory system to bring substances to and away from each and every cell.


Respiration

  • Release of chemical energy

  • Occurs in each and every cell of your body

O2

+ C6H12O6

ATP

+ CO2

+ H2O

(energy)

  • Breathing brings in oxygen

  • Eating brings in sugar

  • Energy is released for the body to use

  • Carbon Dioxide and Water are released as waste.


Respiration cont…

  • Aerobic Respiration:

    • Oxygen is used in this type of respiration

    • More efficient and more energy is released

  • Anaerobic Respiration:

    • Respiration without oxygen

    • Less efficient and less energy

      • Fermentation:

        • Yeast break down sugar in bread to release carbon dioxide

      • Lactic Acid Production:

        • Occurs in your muscles when they cannot get enough oxygen.


Assimilation

  • The body uses nutrients in food (proteins, fats) to build/repair/power itself.

  • “You are what you eat”


Nutrition

Ingestion

  • Is the combination of:

Digestion

Absorption

Taking in food

Breaking down food into simple substances

Simple substances are absorbed by the cells


Nutrition cont..

Food

  • The different uses of food

During Synthesis and Assimilation

During

Respiration

Used for Energy

Used for growth and repair


Growth

  • Increase in size/or maturing

  • Life Span – The maximum amount of Time an organism is expected to live


Excretion

  • The removal of waste from a cell

    Examples:

    • Breathing out CO2

    • Sweat (perspiration)

    • Urination


Ingestion

Excretion

Digestion

Absorbed

Not Absorbed

Used in Respiration

Egestion

(feces, poop)

Waste of Respiration Excreted


Sexual Reproduction

Asexual Reproduction

Reproduction

  • 2 Types

  • 2 Parents

  • Offspring are not identical to parents

  • 1 Parent

  • Offspring are identical to parent


Asexual Reproduction

Budding

Binary Fission

  • When an organism grows off the parent

  • Example:

  • Hydra

  • When one cell splits in half into 2 cells.

  • Example:

  • Bacteria


Asexual Reproduction

Budding

Binary Fission


How did life start on our wonderful Earth?

Spontaneous Generation


Early Earth

  • Formation began approximately 4.6 billion years ago.

  • Composition of the early Earth’s atmosphere:

    • Water vapor

    • Carbon Monoxide

    • Hydrogen Sulfide

    • Methane

    • Hydrogen


Stanley Miller

  • First scientist to provide evidence for the possible creation of life.

  • Simulated the conditions of the early Earth, which created the building blocks of life!


The chemistry of living things

Organic Molecules


4 Organic Molecules

  • Carbohydrates

  • Proteins

  • Fats/Oils

  • Nucleic Acids


Carbohydrates

  • Main source of energy for living things

  • Made up of 3 elements:

    • Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen

  • 2 Main Categories

Simple

  • Complex

  • Sugars

  • Fruits and other processed sugar

  • Starches

  • Potatoes, Rice, Noodles, Bread

  • When broken down, starches will become simple sugars


Proteins

  • Made of Elements:

    • Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen

  • Amino Acids are the building blocks of a protein.

  • Sources: Beans, Poultry, Nuts, Eggs, Meats, Fish, etc..

  • Used for growth, repair, hair, muscles, and energy


Enzymes

  • A special type of protein that regulates chemical activity. It is a catalyst, which speeds up or slows down a chemical reaction, but is not changed by the reaction.


Fats/Oils(also known as lipids)

  • Made of the Elements:

    • Carbon, Oxygen, and Hydrogen

  • Energy rich compounds

  • Fats  Solid at Room Temp.

  • Oil  Liquid at Room Temp.

  • Provide Insulation From:

    • Heat

    • Cushioning vital organs from damage


Nucleic Acids

  • “blueprints of life”

  • Store the information needed to build proteins

  • Examples:

    • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

    • RNA (Ribonucleic acid)


Basic Level Question

Application Level Question

  • What organic molecule is solid at room temperature and is energy rich?

  • Describe how 2 life activities use solid fat. (notice how it connects our notes on Organic Molecules with Mr. Stranger)

  • Your younger brother doesn’t understand why we need to boil our water when the county water treatment plant failed. Discuss the scientist and experiment to verify this advice.

Real World Application Level Question


Extra


Questions

  • What similarities do you see between Carbohydrates and Fats?

  • What life activities must occur to change a sugar into a fat?

  • Which organic molecules can be used in respiration?


Energy is measured in Calories

4

4

9


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