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Sentencing Reform Commission Retreat System Overview & Drivers June 26, 2009 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Sentencing Reform Commission Retreat System Overview & Drivers June 26, 2009. John Speir, Ph.D. Applied Research Services, Inc. Presentation Objectives. SC Primer: SC Terms & Programs Sentencing and Offense Trends Prison & Probation Dynamics Release Mechanisms & Utilization

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Sentencing Reform Commission Retreat System Overview & Drivers June 26, 2009

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Sentencing Reform

Commission Retreat

System Overview & Drivers

June 26, 2009

John Speir, Ph.D.

Applied Research Services, Inc.


Presentation Objectives

  • SC Primer: SC Terms & Programs

  • Sentencing and Offense Trends

  • Prison & Probation Dynamics

  • Release Mechanisms & Utilization

  • Post-Release Trends

  • System Drivers: Where Do We Look First?


SC System Terms & Background

  • Truth-in-Sentencing Statute

  • Prison (SCDC) Custody: 91 Day Sentences

  • Violence Defined Statutorily – Implications

  • Community Supervision Program (CSP)


SC System Terms & Background

  • Youthful Offender Act (YOA)

  • Felony & Misdemeanor Classification

  • Sentence Length:

    • Total Sentence

    • Prison Term

  • Suspended Sentence


  • Do We Have the Right Data?

    • Department of Corrections (SCDC): 5 Years of Admissions, Active, and Release Population

    • Probation, Parole, and Pardons (PPP): Admissions, Revocations, and Parole Hearing Outcomes

    • Judicial Department: 10-Years Indictments and Dispositions


    Commission Data?

    • SLED/Budget Control Board: Computerized Criminal History (CCH)- rap sheet repository

    • Statistical Analysis Center (SAC):

    • National Incident-based Reporting System


    Violent Crime and Incarceration Rate

    Violent Crime Rate

    Incarceration Rate


    Filings, Dispositions,

    And Pending

    % Change 2000-07

    Filings +16%

    Dispositions + 5%

    Pending +41%

    Source: Judicial Department


    Percent Convictions (%)

    No Significant Change Over

    Last 5 years (40% to 42%)

    Source: Judicial Department


    Felony Classes

    A

    5%

    B

    1%

    C

    4%

    D

    20%

    E

    20%

    F

    46%

    X

    3%

    U

    1%

    Source: Judicial Department


    Misdemeanor Classes

    A

    27%

    B

    5%

    C

    25%

    1%

    X

    U

    43%

    Source: Judicial Department


    In-Out Decisions: Top 25

    30%

    Prison

    Probation

    70%

    Challenge Estimating In-Out Decisions

    Source:: SCDC & PPP


    Burglary: 2nd Degree (Violent)

    Prison

    65%

    Probation

    35%

    Source:: SCDC & PPP


    Burglary: 2nd Degree

    (Non-Violent)

    Prison

    49%

    Probation

    51%

    Source:: SCDC & PPP


    Burglary: 3rd Degree

    25%

    Prison

    Probation

    75%

    Source:: SCDC & PPP


    Prison Population

    Total Inmate Pop

    +13% Since 2000

    Admissions

    +26% Since 2000

    8

    Source: SCDC. 2009


    New Court Admissions

    73%

    Probation Revocations

    14%

    Parole Revocations

    8%

    Community Supervision

    3%

    Other

    2%

    Who Is Going To Prison?

    FY-2008 Admissions

    13,950

    Source: SCDC Raw Data Files: FY-08 Admissions


    New Court Prison Admissions

    10,232

    Non-Youthful

    Offenders

    90%

    Youthful

    Offenders

    10%

    No-Parole (85% Time-Serve) Inmates Represent 12% of New Court Commits

    Source: SCDC Raw Data Files: FY-08 Admissions

    Excludes New Court Admission s from Other Jurisdictions (N=89 inmates)


    • DOC Probation Revocations

    1,884

    Probation Revocation

    55%

    Probation Revocation (w/ new sentence)

    45%

    Source: SCDC Raw Data Files: FY-08 Admissions


    DOC Parole Revocations

    1,175

    Non-Youthful Offender (n=438)

    Parole Revocation

    Parole Revocation (w/ new sentence)

    14%

    24%

    Youthful Offender (n=737)

    Parole Revocation

    Parole Revocation (w/ new sentence)

    60%

    2%

    Source: SCDC Raw Data Files: FY-08 Admissions


    Community Supervision Program (CSP) Revocations

    336

    75%

    Revocation

    Revocation (w/ new sentence)

    25%

    Source: SCDC Raw Data Files: FY-08 Admissions


    Selected Offenses


    Selected Offenses


    Prison Sentence Length

    All New Court Commitments: FY-2008

    1-6 mos

    18%

    19%

    6-12 mos

    Total = 10,232

    12-18 mos

    7%

    9%

    18-24 mos

    12%

    24-36 mos

    44% have less than an 18 month prison term

    12%

    36-48 mos

    7%

    48-60 mos

    2%

    60-72 mos

    2%

    72-84 mos

    1.6%

    84-96 mos

    <1%

    96-108 mos

    3.8%

    108-120 mos

    6%

    120+ mos

    Source: SCDC Raw Data Files: FY-08 Admissions


    Sentence Length

    Burglary 2nd Degree - Non-Violent

    3%

    1-6 mos

    9%

    6-12 mos

    5%

    12-18 mos

    8%

    18-24 mos

    12%

    24-36 mos

    39%

    36-48 mos

    11%

    48-60 mos

    3%

    60-72 mos

    3%

    72-84 mos

    2%

    84-96 mos

    1%

    96-108 mos

    2%

    108-120 mos

    2%

    120+ mos

    Source: SCDC Raw Data Files: FY-08 Admissions


    Sentence Length

    Robbery

    2%

    1-6 mos

    5%

    6-12 mos

    3%

    12-18 mos

    6%

    18-24 mos

    10%

    24-36 mos

    35%

    36-48 mos

    13%

    48-60 mos

    4%

    60-72 mos

    3%

    72-84 mos

    4%

    84-96 mos

    1%

    96-108 mos

    4%

    108-120 mos

    10%

    120+ mos

    Source: SCDC Raw Data Files: FY-08 Admissions


    Sentence Length

    Possession Cocaine

    23%

    1-6 mos

    33%

    6-12 mos

    12%

    12-18 mos

    13%

    18-24 mos

    14%

    24-36 mos

    2%

    36-48 mos

    2%

    48-60 mos

    1%

    60-72 mos

    Source: SCDC Raw Data Files: FY-08 Admissions


    Sentence Length

    Driving Under Suspension

    78%

    1-6 mos

    18%

    6-12 mos

    2%

    12-18 mos

    1%

    18-24 mos

    1%

    24-36 mos

    Source: SCDC Raw Data Files: FY-08 Admissions


    Time Served

    Maxout

    Parole

    %

    Mos.

    %

    Mos.

    Assault & Battery – High & Aggravated Nature

    Burglary – 2nd Degree & Non-Violent

    Cocaine Possession

    Driving Under Suspension

    Forgery

    52%

    52%

    51%

    42%

    49%

    18

    20

    7

    3

    10

    39%

    40%

    34%

    0%

    38%

    29

    44

    11

    0

    19


    Time Served –

    Probation/Parole Violators

    Time Served

    (in months)

    Revocation Type

    Average

    Median

    27

    14

    10

    20

    13

    28

    13

    8

    9

    10

    10

    6

    12

    10

    Parole Violator

    Probation Violator

    YOA Parole Violator

    Parole Revocation w/ New Sentence

    Probation/CS Revocation w/ New Sentence

    YOA Revocation w/ New Sentence

    Total


    Probation & Parole Admissions

    FY-08 Admissions 19,049

    73%

    Probation

    11%

    Splits

    Total Probation & Parole Population (FY-2008)

    32,194

    8%

    YOA Program

    4%

    Parole

    Community Supervision

    3%

    1%

    Other


    Supervision Level By Category

    Standard

    74%

    Probation

    Parole

    Youthful Offender

    80%

    56%

    High

    Supervision Levels Do Not

    Include Specialized Sex Offender Caseloads & CSP Offenders

    24%

    Probation

    Parole

    Youthful Offender

    14%

    20%

    Intensive

    2%

    Probation

    Parole

    Youthful Offender

    6%

    23%


    System Drivers Deserving Closer Review

    (Evaluation Criteria)

    • Offense Specific Analysis

    • Structural Problems

    • Policy Over/Under Utilization


    System Drivers Deserving Closer Review

    (Evaluation Criteria - Offenses)

    • Annual # Admissions

    • Increase in admissions over time

    • Length-of-Stay (LOS)

    • Projected Bed Day Utilization

    • Significant impact over many years

  • Potential for Change


  • Offense/Offender Triage

    Burglary 2nd Degree/Non-Violent

    Burglary 2nd Degree

    Probation Violation w/out New Sentence

    Parole Violation w/out New Sentence

    Forgery

    Failure to Stop

    DUI

    Driving Under Suspension


    Structural Problem:

    Parole-Maxout Dilemma

    Parole Unavailable

    For No-Parole Offenders or Competes a Against Earned Time Credits


    Parole-Maxout Dilemma?

    10-Year Total Prison Sentence with 2 Years to Serve

    Non-Violent Offense & Parole Eligible

    1 Month

    10 Years

    2-Year Prison

    Term

    Parole

    Eligible

    2.5 to 3 years

    Maxout

    Before Parole (approximately 1,000 per year)


    Parole-Maxout Dilemma?

    10 Year Suspended on Service of 6 Years

    Violent Offense & Parole Eligible

    10 Year

    Suspended

    1 Month

    6-Year

    Prison

    Service

    Mark

    Parole

    Eligible

    at 40

    months

    Maxout

    @ 36 months


    % Maxout & Parole Release:

    Suspended Sentences

    New Court Admissions

    2004-2008

    Maxouts

    81%

    Not Suspended

    Suspended

    19%

    Paroles (NYOA)

    54%

    Not Suspended

    46%

    Suspended


    % Hearing Approval Rates, 1975-2007

    80%

    60%

    40%

    20%

    0%

    1975

    1985

    1995

    2007

    Source: SC Statistical Analysis Center, 2008


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