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Sentencing Reform Commission Retreat System Overview & Drivers June 26, 2009

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Sentencing Reform Commission Retreat System Overview & Drivers June 26, 2009. John Speir, Ph.D. Applied Research Services, Inc. Presentation Objectives. SC Primer: SC Terms & Programs Sentencing and Offense Trends Prison & Probation Dynamics Release Mechanisms & Utilization

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Sentencing Reform

Commission Retreat

System Overview & Drivers

June 26, 2009

John Speir, Ph.D.

Applied Research Services, Inc.

slide2

Presentation Objectives

  • SC Primer: SC Terms & Programs
  • Sentencing and Offense Trends
  • Prison & Probation Dynamics
  • Release Mechanisms & Utilization
  • Post-Release Trends
  • System Drivers: Where Do We Look First?
slide3

SC System Terms & Background

  • Truth-in-Sentencing Statute
  • Prison (SCDC) Custody: 91 Day Sentences
  • Violence Defined Statutorily – Implications
  • Community Supervision Program (CSP)
slide4

SC System Terms & Background

  • Youthful Offender Act (YOA)
  • Felony & Misdemeanor Classification
  • Sentence Length:
        • Total Sentence
        • Prison Term
  • Suspended Sentence
slide5

Do We Have the Right Data?

  • Department of Corrections (SCDC): 5 Years of Admissions, Active, and Release Population
  • Probation, Parole, and Pardons (PPP): Admissions, Revocations, and Parole Hearing Outcomes
  • Judicial Department: 10-Years Indictments and Dispositions
slide6

Commission Data?

  • SLED/Budget Control Board: Computerized Criminal History (CCH)- rap sheet repository
  • Statistical Analysis Center (SAC):
  • National Incident-based Reporting System
slide7

Violent Crime and Incarceration Rate

Violent Crime Rate

Incarceration Rate

slide8

Filings, Dispositions,

And Pending

% Change 2000-07

Filings +16%

Dispositions + 5%

Pending +41%

Source: Judicial Department

slide9

Percent Convictions (%)

No Significant Change Over

Last 5 years (40% to 42%)

Source: Judicial Department

slide10

Felony Classes

A

5%

B

1%

C

4%

D

20%

E

20%

F

46%

X

3%

U

1%

Source: Judicial Department

slide11

Misdemeanor Classes

A

27%

B

5%

C

25%

1%

X

U

43%

Source: Judicial Department

slide12

In-Out Decisions: Top 25

30%

Prison

Probation

70%

Challenge Estimating In-Out Decisions

Source:: SCDC & PPP

slide13

Burglary: 2nd Degree (Violent)

Prison

65%

Probation

35%

Source:: SCDC & PPP

slide14

Burglary: 2nd Degree

(Non-Violent)

Prison

49%

Probation

51%

Source:: SCDC & PPP

slide15

Burglary: 3rd Degree

25%

Prison

Probation

75%

Source:: SCDC & PPP

slide16

Prison Population

Total Inmate Pop

+13% Since 2000

Admissions

+26% Since 2000

8

Source: SCDC. 2009

slide17

New Court Admissions

73%

Probation Revocations

14%

Parole Revocations

8%

Community Supervision

3%

Other

2%

Who Is Going To Prison?

FY-2008 Admissions

13,950

Source: SCDC Raw Data Files: FY-08 Admissions

slide18

New Court Prison Admissions

10,232

Non-Youthful

Offenders

90%

Youthful

Offenders

10%

No-Parole (85% Time-Serve) Inmates Represent 12% of New Court Commits

Source: SCDC Raw Data Files: FY-08 Admissions

Excludes New Court Admission s from Other Jurisdictions (N=89 inmates)

slide19

DOC Probation Revocations

1,884

Probation Revocation

55%

Probation Revocation (w/ new sentence)

45%

Source: SCDC Raw Data Files: FY-08 Admissions

slide20

DOC Parole Revocations

1,175

Non-Youthful Offender (n=438)

Parole Revocation

Parole Revocation (w/ new sentence)

14%

24%

Youthful Offender (n=737)

Parole Revocation

Parole Revocation (w/ new sentence)

60%

2%

Source: SCDC Raw Data Files: FY-08 Admissions

slide21

Community Supervision Program (CSP) Revocations

336

75%

Revocation

Revocation (w/ new sentence)

25%

Source: SCDC Raw Data Files: FY-08 Admissions

slide24

Prison Sentence Length

All New Court Commitments: FY-2008

1-6 mos

18%

19%

6-12 mos

Total = 10,232

12-18 mos

7%

9%

18-24 mos

12%

24-36 mos

44% have less than an 18 month prison term

12%

36-48 mos

7%

48-60 mos

2%

60-72 mos

2%

72-84 mos

1.6%

84-96 mos

<1%

96-108 mos

3.8%

108-120 mos

6%

120+ mos

Source: SCDC Raw Data Files: FY-08 Admissions

slide25

Sentence Length

Burglary 2nd Degree - Non-Violent

3%

1-6 mos

9%

6-12 mos

5%

12-18 mos

8%

18-24 mos

12%

24-36 mos

39%

36-48 mos

11%

48-60 mos

3%

60-72 mos

3%

72-84 mos

2%

84-96 mos

1%

96-108 mos

2%

108-120 mos

2%

120+ mos

Source: SCDC Raw Data Files: FY-08 Admissions

slide26

Sentence Length

Robbery

2%

1-6 mos

5%

6-12 mos

3%

12-18 mos

6%

18-24 mos

10%

24-36 mos

35%

36-48 mos

13%

48-60 mos

4%

60-72 mos

3%

72-84 mos

4%

84-96 mos

1%

96-108 mos

4%

108-120 mos

10%

120+ mos

Source: SCDC Raw Data Files: FY-08 Admissions

slide27

Sentence Length

Possession Cocaine

23%

1-6 mos

33%

6-12 mos

12%

12-18 mos

13%

18-24 mos

14%

24-36 mos

2%

36-48 mos

2%

48-60 mos

1%

60-72 mos

Source: SCDC Raw Data Files: FY-08 Admissions

slide28

Sentence Length

Driving Under Suspension

78%

1-6 mos

18%

6-12 mos

2%

12-18 mos

1%

18-24 mos

1%

24-36 mos

Source: SCDC Raw Data Files: FY-08 Admissions

slide29

Time Served

Maxout

Parole

%

Mos.

%

Mos.

Assault & Battery – High & Aggravated Nature

Burglary – 2nd Degree & Non-Violent

Cocaine Possession

Driving Under Suspension

Forgery

52%

52%

51%

42%

49%

18

20

7

3

10

39%

40%

34%

0%

38%

29

44

11

0

19

slide30

Time Served –

Probation/Parole Violators

Time Served

(in months)

Revocation Type

Average

Median

27

14

10

20

13

28

13

8

9

10

10

6

12

10

Parole Violator

Probation Violator

YOA Parole Violator

Parole Revocation w/ New Sentence

Probation/CS Revocation w/ New Sentence

YOA Revocation w/ New Sentence

Total

slide31

Probation & Parole Admissions

FY-08 Admissions 19,049

73%

Probation

11%

Splits

Total Probation & Parole Population (FY-2008)

32,194

8%

YOA Program

4%

Parole

Community Supervision

3%

1%

Other

slide32

Supervision Level By Category

Standard

74%

Probation

Parole

Youthful Offender

80%

56%

High

Supervision Levels Do Not

Include Specialized Sex Offender Caseloads & CSP Offenders

24%

Probation

Parole

Youthful Offender

14%

20%

Intensive

2%

Probation

Parole

Youthful Offender

6%

23%

slide33

System Drivers Deserving Closer Review

(Evaluation Criteria)

  • Offense Specific Analysis
  • Structural Problems
  • Policy Over/Under Utilization
slide34

System Drivers Deserving Closer Review

(Evaluation Criteria - Offenses)

      • Annual # Admissions
      • Increase in admissions over time
      • Length-of-Stay (LOS)
      • Projected Bed Day Utilization
      • Significant impact over many years
  • Potential for Change
slide35

Offense/Offender Triage

Burglary 2nd Degree/Non-Violent

Burglary 2nd Degree

Probation Violation w/out New Sentence

Parole Violation w/out New Sentence

Forgery

Failure to Stop

DUI

Driving Under Suspension

slide36

Structural Problem:

Parole-Maxout Dilemma

Parole Unavailable

For No-Parole Offenders or Competes a Against Earned Time Credits

slide37

Parole-Maxout Dilemma?

10-Year Total Prison Sentence with 2 Years to Serve

Non-Violent Offense & Parole Eligible

1 Month

10 Years

2-Year Prison

Term

Parole

Eligible

2.5 to 3 years

Maxout

Before Parole (approximately 1,000 per year)

slide38

Parole-Maxout Dilemma?

10 Year Suspended on Service of 6 Years

Violent Offense & Parole Eligible

10 Year

Suspended

1 Month

6-Year

Prison

Service

Mark

Parole

Eligible

at 40

months

Maxout

@ 36 months

slide39

% Maxout & Parole Release:

Suspended Sentences

New Court Admissions

2004-2008

Maxouts

81%

Not Suspended

Suspended

19%

Paroles (NYOA)

54%

Not Suspended

46%

Suspended

slide40

% Hearing Approval Rates, 1975-2007

80%

60%

40%

20%

0%

1975

1985

1995

2007

Source: SC Statistical Analysis Center, 2008

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