Red Brome. Anita Thompson NRES 441 Invasive Plants. www.forestryimages.org/.../3072x2048/5391954.jpg. http://www.californiachaparral.com/adesertfires.html. Scientific and common names. Family – Poaceae (Grasses) Names can be confusing and/or location dependent!.
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Family – Poaceae (Grasses)
Names can be confusing and/or location dependent!
Foxtail chess is an invader of the historical perennial grasslands of California.
Prefers disturbed sites
Prefers Mediterranean sites (dry summers, wet winters) but can occur in drier climates.
Prolific seed producer – averages 76 seeds/plant
Prefers disturbed areas
Requires less moisture than natives
Rarely grazed (little nutritional value, ripe seedheads/awns dangerous to livestock)
Very responsive to over-grazed and post-fire areas
Problem #2 - Fire
Why is Red Brome a Fire Management Issue?http://www.nature.org/wherewework/northamerica/states/oklahoma/about/rangeland.html
Red brome grows in areas that were once either open gaps (vacant niches) or filled with native annuals that were out competed.
Red brome interspersed with native plants
Fire return interval is now shortened = more frequent fireshttp://www.nature.org/wherewework/northamerica/states/oklahoma/about/rangeland.html
Native shrubs are killed = loss of habitat, food value and recreational/aesthetic values
Red brome now has more spaces to germinate
Other fire management considerationshttp://www.nature.org/wherewework/northamerica/states/oklahoma/about/rangeland.html:
Ecological and Societal Impactshttp://www.nature.org/wherewework/northamerica/states/oklahoma/about/rangeland.html
Management Strategies cont.http://www.nature.org/wherewework/northamerica/states/oklahoma/about/rangeland.html
Case study: Anaho Island http://www.nature.org/wherewework/northamerica/states/oklahoma/about/rangeland.html
Anaho Island cont.http://www.nature.org/wherewework/northamerica/states/oklahoma/about/rangeland.html
1966, B. rubens was common (21- 50%) only in the upper terraces, but occurred occasionally (6-20%) the shoreline and lower terraces of the NE side
2009, B. rubens was very common (50%+) to common on most of the island. It was not surveyed on the lower NE terraces due to pelican nests.
Kulpa, S. Unpublished data
Anahohttp://www.nature.org/wherewework/northamerica/states/oklahoma/about/rangeland.html Island cont.
Bowers, Michael A. 1987. Precipitation and the relative abundances of desert winter annuals: a 6-year study in the northern Mohave Desert. Journal of Arid Environments. 12: 141-149. 
Kulpa, S., 2009. Anaho Island Research (unpublished data).
Reid, C.R., S. Goodrich and J.E. Bowns. 2008. Cheatgrass and Red Brome: History and Biology of Two Invaders. Proceedings - Shrublands under fire: disturbance and recovery in a changing world. Proc. RMRS-P-52. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station.
Salo, L.F. 2004. Population dynamics of red brome (Bromus madritensis subsp. Rubens): times for concern, opportunities for management. Journal of Arid Environments 57: 291-296.
Salo, L.F. 2005. Red brome (Bromus rubens subsp. Madritensis) in North America: possible modes for early introductions, subsequent spread. Biological Invasions 7: 165-180.
Simonin, Kevin A. 2001. Bromus rubens, Bromus madritensis. In: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [ 2010, April 30].
Svejcar, T. and R. Tausch. 1991. Anaho Island, Nevada: A Relict Area Dominated By Annual Invader Species. Rangelands 13(5): 233-236.
The Nature Conservancy. 2001. Element Stewardship Abstract For Bromus rubens. http://www.imapinvasives.org/GIST/ESA/esapages/documnts/bromrub.pdf, [2010, April 30].
Utah State University Extension. 2002. Red Brome. http://extension.usu.edu/range/Grasses/redbrome.htm, [2010, April 30].