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PowerPoint® presentation to accompany: Medical Assisting Third Edition Booth, Whicker, Wyman, Pugh, Thompson PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 34. The Endocrine System. PowerPoint® presentation to accompany: Medical Assisting Third Edition Booth, Whicker, Wyman, Pugh, Thompson. Learning Outcomes. 34.1Define the term endocrine glands . 34.2Describe the general functions of the endocrine system.

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PowerPoint® presentation to accompany: Medical Assisting Third Edition Booth, Whicker, Wyman, Pugh, Thompson

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Chapter 34

The Endocrine System

PowerPoint® presentation to accompany:

Medical Assisting

Third Edition

Booth, Whicker, Wyman, Pugh, Thompson


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Learning Outcomes

34.1Define the term endocrine glands.

34.2Describe the general functions of the endocrine system.

34.3Define the term hormone.

34.4Explain the difference in hormone control by positive and negative feedback loops.


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Learning Outcomes (cont.)

34.5Describe the locations of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pineal body, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, thymus, and gonads.

34.6List the hormones released by the pituitary glandand give the functions of each.

34.7List the hormones released by the thyroid gland and parathyroid glands and give the functions of each.


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Learning Outcomes (cont.)

34.8List the hormones released by the adrenal glands and give the functions of each.

34.9List the names of the endocrine cells of the pancreas, the hormones released by them, and the function of each hormone.

34.10List the hormones released by the pineal body, thymus, and gonads, and give the functions of each.


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Learning Outcomes (cont.)

34.11Name the hormones produced by the kidneys and heart, listing which organ produces the hormone, and the hormone’s function.

34.12Describe stressors and their effect on the body.

34.13Describe the causes, signs and symptoms, and treatment of various endocrine disorders.


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secrete

into

bloodstream

to

hormones

target tissues

Introduction

  • The endocrine system includes the organs of the body that secrete hormones directly into body fluids such as blood

    • Regulates chemical reaction in cells and therefore control functions of the organs, tissues, and other cells

Glands


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Hormones

  • Endocrine glands

    • Ductless

    • Release hormones

      • Directly into target tissues

      • Into bloodstream to be carried to target tissues

  • Hormones – chemicals secreted by a cell that affect the functions of other cells


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hormones

Hormones (cont.)

  • Many are derived from steroidsthat easily cross the cell membrane

  • Examples of steroid hormones

    • Estrogen

    • Progesterone

    • Testosterone

    • Cortisol


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Nonsteroidal hormones

Made of amino acids or proteins and cannot cross the cell membrane easily

Bind to receptors on the surface of the cells

G-protein – activated by the hormone-receptor complex

Activates enzymes inside cell

Prostaglandins

Local, or tissue, hormones

Derived from lipid molecules

Do not travel in the bloodstream

Target tissues are located close by

Produced by organs such as

Kidneys

Heart

Stomach

Uterus

Brain

Hormones(cont.)


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Negative and Positive Feedback Loops

  • Control hormone levels

  • Negative feedback loop

    • Hormone release stops in response to decrease in stimulus

      • Stimulus (eating) raises blood glucose levels

      • Pancreas releases insulin in response to elevated blood glucose

      • Blood glucose decreases as it is used by the body or stored in the liver

      • Insulin release stops as blood glucose levels normalize


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Negative and Positive Feedback Loops(cont.)

  • Positive feedback loop

    • As long as stimulus is present, action of hormone continues

      • Infant nursing at mother’s breast  stimulates hypothalamus  stimulates posterior pituitary

      • Oxytocin released  stimulates milk production and ejection from mammary glands

      • Milk release continues as long as infant continues to nurse


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ANSWER:

E

Apply Your Knowledge

Match the following:

___Chemicals that effect cell functionA.Nonsteroidal hormone

___Easily cross cell membranesB.Steroidal hormone

___Made of amino acidsC.G-protein

___Target nearby cellsD.Prostaglandins

___Activated by hormone-receptor E.Hormones complex

___Cannot cross cell membranes easily

___Estrogen and cortisol

B

A

D

C

VERY GOOD!

A

B


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Glands

Hypothalamus

  • Hormones

    • Oxytocin

    • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

  • Hormones transported to the posterior pituitary for storage

  • Directs posterior pituitary to release hormones


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Glands

Pituitary Gland

  • Controlled by the hypothalamus

  • Located at the base of the brain

    • Protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica

    • The optic chiasm is located just above the pituitary gland

      • Carries visual information to the brain for interpretation

  • Two lobes

    • Anterior lobe

    • Posterior lobe


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Pituitary Gland (cont.)

Growth hormone

Prolactin

Stimulates milk production

Stimulates increase in size of muscles and bones

Anterior

Lobe

Thyroid-stimulating

Luteinizing

Stimulates the thyroid gland to release its hormones

Females: stimulates ovulationand estrogen production

Males: stimulates testosterone production

Follicle-stimulating

Adrenocorticotropic

Females: stimulates estrogen production and maturation of the ova

Males: stimulates sperm production

Stimulates the adrenal cortex to release its hormones


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Pituitary Gland(cont.)

Oxytocin

Posterior

Lobe

Females: causes contraction of the uterus and ejection of breast milk

Males: stimulates contraction of the prostate and vas deferens during sexual arousal

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Stimulates the kidneys to conserve water


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Apply Your Knowledge

ANSWER:

D, E

Match the following:

___ Stored in posterior pituitaryA. Follicle-stimulating hormone

___ Milk productionB. Prolactin

___ Produced by hypothalmusC. Luteinizing hormone

___ Stimulates sperm productionD. ADH

___ Maturation of ova E. Oxytocin

___ Stimulates ovulation

___ Conservation of water

___ Production of testosterone

___ Contraction of uterus

B

D, E

A

A

C

Super!

D

C

E


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Thyroid Gland and Parathyroid Glands

Thyroid hormones

Calcitonin

T3 T4

Glands

Thyroid Gland

  • Located below the larynx

  • Divided into follicles that store some of the hormones

Major hormones

Stimulate protein synthesis and increase cellular energy production

Lowers blood calcium levels by activating osteoblasts that build new bone tissue


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Glands

Thyroid Gland and Parathyroid Glands (cont.)

  • Parathyroid glands

    • Four located on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland

    • Secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH)

      • Agonist to calcitonin by raising blood calcium levels through activation of osetoclasts (dissolve bone)

        • As bone dissolves, calcium levels in blood increase


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Thyroid follicles store some hormones.

PTH activates osteoclasts.

Thyroid hormone increases cellular energy production.

Apply Your Knowledge

True or False:

__ Thyroid hormones stimulate protein synthesis.

__ The thyroid gland does not store hormones.

__ PTH activates osteoblasts.

__ Calcitonin increases cellular energy production.

__ The four parathyroid glands are located on the thyroid gland.

__ Calcitonin lowers blood calcium levels.

ANSWER:

T

F

F

F

T

Bravo!

T


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Glands

Adrenal Glands

  • Located on top of each kidney

  • Divided into the adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex

  • Adrenal medulla

    • Central portion

    • Hormones

      • Epinephrine

      • Norepinephrine

      • Same effects as sympathetic nervous system


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Adrenal Glands (cont.)

  • Adrenal cortex

    • Outermost portion

    • Secretes many hormones, but main ones are

      • Aldosterone

        • Stimulates body to retain sodium and water

        • Important in maintaining BP

      • Cortisol

        • Released when stressed

        • Decreases protein synthesis, resulting in slowed tissue repair

        • Decreases inflammation


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ANSWER:

B, D

Apply Your Knowledge

Match the following:

____ Adrenal medullaA. Cortisol

____ Sodium retentionB. Epinephrine

____ Decreases inflammationC. Aldosterone

____ Sympathetic effectsD. Norepinephrine

____ Maintains blood pressure

____ Released during stress

____ Adrenal cortex

C

A

B, D

C

A

Excellent!

A, C


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Glands

Pancreas

  • Located behind the stomach

  • Both exocrine gland and endocrine gland

    • Exocrine – secretes digestive enzymes into a duct leading to the small intestine

    • Endocrine – secretes hormones into bloodstream


Pancreas cont l.jpg

Blood glucose concentrations

Blood glucose concentrations

Protein synthesis

Protein synthesis

Pancreas (cont.)

  • Islets of Langerhanssecrete hormones into bloodstream

    • Alpha cells secrete glucagon

    • Beta cells secrete insulin

Insulin

Glucagon


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Apply Your Knowledge

Yippee!

What are the effects of insulin and glucagon?

ANSWER: Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration and increases protein synthesis.

Glucagon does just the opposite. It increases blood glucose and decreases protein synthesis.


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Pineal body

Small gland

Located between cerebral hemispheres

Melatonin

Regulates circadian rhythms

May play a role in onset of puberty

Thymus gland

Located between lungs

Thymosin

Promotes production of T lymphocytes

Glands

Other Hormone-Producing Organs


Other hormone producing organs cont l.jpg

The gonads

Ovaries

Estrogen

Progesterone

Testes

Testosterone

Stomach

Gastrin

Small intestine

Secretin

Cholecystokinin

Heart

Atrial natriuretic peptide – regulates BP

Kidneys

Erythropoietin – stimulates blood cell production

Glands

Other Hormone-Producing Organs(cont.)


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Back

Back


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ANSWER:

D

Apply Your Knowledge

Match the following:

___ Between lungsA. Pineal body

___ MelatoninB. Heart

___ Estrogen/testosteroneC. Kidneys

___ GastrinD. Thymus gland

___ SecretinE. Small intestine

___ ErythropoietinF. Stomach

___ Atrial natriuetic peptideG. Gonads

___ Thymosin

___ Cholecystokinin

A

G

F

E

C

B

D

Good Job!

E


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The Stress Response

  • Stressor

    • Any stimulus that produces stress

    • Types

      • Physical factors

      • Psychological factors

      • Positive stimuli


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The Stress Response (cont.)

  • Physiologic response to stress caused by hormone release

    • General stress syndrome

      • Increased heart rate, respiratory rate, and BP

      • Increase in glucose and fatty acids in blood, which leads to weight loss

      • Increase in cortisol if stress prolonged

        • Decreased body repair

        • Susceptibility to illness


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ANSWER:

A

Apply Your Knowledge

Match the following:

___ Extreme heatA. Physical stress

___ Death of friendB. Psychological stress

___ Fractured legC. Positive stimulus

___ Wedding

___ Exam

___ Hearing an explosion nearby

___ “A” on an exam

___ Flu

___ Car stolen

B

A

C

B

Very Good!

B

C

A

B


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Common Diseases and Disorders


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Common Diseases and Disorders (cont.)


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Common Diseases and Disorders (cont.)


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Apply Your Knowledge

ANSWER:

in an adult

F

hypothyroidism

too much ACTH

hypothyroidism

Correct!

True or False:

___ Acromegaly develops as a result of too much growth hormone in a child.

___ In diabetes insipidus, the kidneys fail to reabsorb water.

___ Too little growth hormone in childhood results in dwarfism.

___ Myxedema is the result of hyperthyroidism.

___ Addison’s disease is the result of too little corticosteroid.

___ Cushing’s disease is the result of too little ACTH.

___ Cretinism is an extreme form of hyperthyroidism present at birth.

T

T

F

T

F

F


In summary l.jpg

The organs of the endocrine system secrete hormones directly into blood and other body fluids.

Hormones secreted by the endocrine system control the functions of other cells.

Endocrine organs

Hypothalamus

Pituitary gland

Thyroid gland

Parathyroid glands

Adrenal glands

Pancreas

Pineal body

Thymus gland

Gonads, stomach small intestine, heart, kidneys

In Summary


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End of Chapter 34

Its not stress that kills us, it is our reaction to it.

~ Hans Selye


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