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DATABASE SYSTEMS - 10p Course No. 2AD235 Spring 2002. A second course on development of database systems Kjell Orsborn Uppsala Database Laboratory Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. Introduction to Object-Oriented and Object-Relational Databases.

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Database systems 10p course no 2ad235 spring 2002

DATABASE SYSTEMS - 10pCourse No. 2AD235Spring 2002

A second course on development of database systems

Kjell OrsbornUppsala Database LaboratoryDepartment of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

Introduction to object oriented and object relational databases

Introduction to Object-Oriented and Object-Relational Databases

Kjell OrsbornUppsala Database Laboratory,Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

Talk outline
Talk Outline Databases

  • Some General DBMS Concepts

    • limitations of traditional DBMSs

  • History of DBMSs

  • Object-Oriented Databases

  • Object-Relational Databases

  • Differences

  • Standards

Database design
Database Design Databases

  • Database Design:

    • How to translate subset of reality into data representations in the database.

  • Schema:

    • A description of properties of data in a database (i.e. a meta-database)

  • Data Model:

    • A set of building blocks (data abstractions) to represent reality.Each DBMS supports one Data Model.The most common one is the Relational Data Model where data is represented in tables.NOTICE: E.g. CAD people use the word ‘Data Model’ instead of ‘Schema’

  • Conceptual Data Model:

    • A very high level and user-oriented data model (often graphical).CDM not necessarily representable in DBMS or computer!Most common CDM is Entity-Relationship (ER) data model.But also Extended ER models are common

  • Conceptual Schema Design

    • Produce a DBMS independent Conceptual Schema in the Conceptual Data Model

Logical database design
Logical Database Design Databases

  • Logical Database Design:

    • How to translate Conceptual Schemas in the conceptual data model (e.g. ER-schemas)to a Conceptual Schema in the DBMS data model (e.g relational tables)

  • Logical Database Design for the Relational Data Model includes:

    • Key Identification: What attributes are used to identify rows in a table?

    • Normalization: Table decomposition to solve update problems, normal forms

  • PROBLEM: Semantics may disappear or be blurred when data is translated to less expressive data model and normalized

Physical database design
Physical Database Design Databases

  • Physical Database Design:

    • Physical representation of the database schema optimized with respect to the access patterns of critical applications.

  • Indexes:

    • permit fast matching of records in table satisfying certain search conditions.

    • The index structures are closely related to the internal physical representations of the DBMS.

    • Indexes can speed up execution considerably, as well as storing data usually accessed together in the same table.

    • Indexes permit the database to scale, i.e. the access times grow much slower than the database size.

  • PROBLEM: New applications may require data and index structures that are not supported by the DBMS. (e.g. calendars, numerical data, geographical data, data exchange formats, etc.)

The ansi sparc three schema architecture
The ANSI/SPARC three-schema Architecture Databases

  • Achieves Data Independence

Data independence
Data Independence Databases

  • External View:

    • Mapping Conceptual Schema --> subset of the database for a particular (group of) users.

  • Data Independence:

    • The capability to change the database schema without having to change applications.NOTE: Data Independence is very important since databases continuously change!

  • Logical Data Independence:

    • The capability to change conceptual schema without having to change applications and interfaces to views.E.g.: create a new table, add a column to a table, or split a table into two tables

  • Physical Data Independence:

    • The capability to change the physical schema without having to change applications and logical schema (E.g. add/drop indexes, change data formats, etc.)

  • PROBLEM: Application programs still often have data dependencies, e.g. to map relational database tables to application object structures.

Database manipulation
Database Manipulation Databases

  • Query Language:

    • Originally a QL could only specify more or less complex database searches.Now the query language (SQL) is a general language for interactions with the database.

  • Typical query language operations are:

    • Searching for records fulfilling certain selection conditions

    • Iterating over entire tables applying update operations

    • Schema definition and evolution operators

    • Object-Oriented Databases have other operations such as create and delete objects

  • The user directly or indirectly calls SQL in the following ways:

    • By running an interpreter that interactively executes SQL commands

    • By running an application program that contains calls to Embedded SQL

    • By running a graphical Database Browser to navigate through the database. (The browser internally calls embedded SQL)

  • PROBLEM: Would like to be able to customize and extend query language for different application areas.

Views Databases

  • View:

    • A view is a mapping from the Conceptual Schema to a subset of the database as seen by aparticular (group of) users.

      • SQL is a closed query language that maps tables into tables => SQL allows very general views (derived tables) to be defined as single queries

  • Views provide:

    • External schema

      • Each user is given a set of views that map to relevant parts of the database

    • Logical data independence

      • When schema is modified views mapping new to old schema can be defined

    • Encapsulation

      • Views hide details of physical table structure

    • Authorization

      • The DBA can assign different authorization privileges to views ofdifferent users

  • NOTICE: Views provide logical data independence.

New dbms applications for oodbmss
New DBMS Applications (for OODBMSs) Databases

  • Classical DBMS:

    • Administrative applications, e.g. Banking (ATMs)

  • Properties:

    • Very large structured data volumes

    • Very many small Transactions On-line (High transaction rates)

    • Occasional batch programs

    • High Security/Consistency

  • New Needs for Engineering, Scientific databases, etc.:

    • Extensibility (on all levels)

    • Better performance

    • Expressability (e.g. Object-Orientation needed)

    • Tight PL Interfaces

    • Long transactions (work in ‘sand box’)

New dbms applications cont
New DBMS Applications (cont. ...) Databases

Problem areas:

  • CASE Computer Aided Software Engineering

  • CAD Computer Aided Design

  • CAM Computer Aided Manufacturing

  • OIS Office Information Systems

  • Multi-media databases

  • Scientific Applications

  • Hypertext databases (WWW)

Object oriented databases
Object-Oriented Databases Databases

Problems with using RDBMSs for OO applications

  • Complex mapping from OO conceptual model to relations

  • Complex mapping => complex programs and queries

  • Complex programs => maintenance problems

  • Complex programs => reliability problems

  • Complex queries => database query optimizer may be very slow

  • Application vulnerable to schema changes

  • Performance

Object oriented databases1

First generation ODBs Databases

Extend OO programming language with DBMS primitives

E.g. C++, SmallTalk, Java

Allow persistent data structures in C++ programs

Navigate through database using C++ primitives (as CODASYL)

An object store for C++, SmallTalk, Java, etc.

Several products out, e.g.:

Objectivity, Versant, ObjectStore, Gemstone, Poet , PJama, O2

Object-Oriented Databases

Object oriented databases2

Pros and cons: Databases+Long transactions with checkin/checkout model (sand box)+Always same language (C++)+High efficiency (but only for checked-out data)- Primitive ‘query languages’ (now OQL standard proposed)- No methods in database (all code executes in client, no stored   procedures)- Rudimentary data independence (no views)- Limited concurrency- Unsafe, database may crash- Slow for many small transactions (e.g. ATM applications)- May require extensive C++ or Java knowledge

Object-Oriented Databases

Object oriented databases3

Persistence Databases

Integrated with programming language:

E.g. C++ with persistent objectsclass PERSON { ... };....{PERSON P; // Local within block... }static PERSON p; // Local for executionpersistent PERSON p; // Exists between program executions

Pointer swizzling:

Automatic conversion from disk addresses to MM addresses

References to data structures on disk (OIDs) look like regular C++ pointers!

Navigational access style.

Fast when database cached in main-memory of client!

Preprocessed by OODBMS for convenient extension of C++

Object-Oriented Databases

Object relational databases

Object-Relational DBMSs Databases


Extend on RDBMS functionality

Customized (abstract) data types

Customized index structures

Customized query optimizers

Use declarative query languages, SQL extension (SQL99)

Extensible DBMS

Object-orientation for abstract data types

Data blades (data cartridges, data extenders) are database server ‘plug-ins’ that provide:

User definable index structures

Cost hints and re-write rules for the query optimizer

Object-Relational Databases

Object relational databases1

Pros and cons: Databases+Migration path to SQL+Views, logical data independence possible+Programming language independence+Full DBMS functionality+Stored procedures, triggers, constraints+High transaction performance by avoiding data shipping+Easy to use declarative queries- Overkill for application needing just a C++ object store- Performance may suffer compared to OODBs for applications needing   just an object store- May be very difficult to extend index structures and query optimizers

Research prototypes: Iris (HP), Postgres (Berkeley), Starburst (IBM)

Products: Informix, OpenODB (Odapter), DB2NOTE: On-going evolution of 1st gen. products to become more Object-Relational

Object-Relational Databases

Object oriented databases4

Literature: Databases

M.Stonebraker: Object-relational DBMSs - The next great wave, Morgan-Kaufmann 1996

Object-Oriented Manifestos

First generation ODB Manifesto: State-of-the-art OODBs anno 1990

Atkinsson et al: The OO Database System Manifesto in W.Kim, J-M. Nicolas, S.Nishio (eds): 1st Intl. Conf. on Deductive and OO DatabasesEarly O2

Object-relational DB Manifesto: Requirements for next generation DBMSs anno 1990

Stonebraker et. al.: Third-generation Data Base System ManifestoSIGMOD Record, Vol. 20, No. 4, Dec.1991.

Object-Oriented Databases

Object oriented databases5

The Manifestos: Databases

Object identity

E.g. for structure sharing:Unique OIDs maintained by DBMSE.g. Parent(:tore) = :ulla, Parent(:kalle)=:ulla

Complex objects

Not only tables, numbers, strings but sets, bags, lists, and arrays, i.e. non-1NF relations

E.g. Courses(:tore) = {:c1,:c2,:c3}



Object-Oriented Databases

Object oriented databases manifesto cont

Extensibility Databases

User-defined data types and operations on these new datatypes

e.g. datatypes: create type Person, create type Timepoint

e.g. operations. name(:tore), :t2 - :t1, :t2 > :t1, etc.

Both OO and OR allow abstract datatypes through object-orientation

Extensions of physical representations (including indexes) and corresponding operations

OO/OR databases allow extensions of physical representations

OR databases allow definition of new indexes

Extensions of query processor with optimization algorithms and cost models

OR databases allow extensions of query processing

Class Hierarchies as modelling tool (both OO/OR)


e.g. Student subtype of Person

Shared properties


Student subtype of Person with extra attributes University, Classes, …

Object-Oriented Databases (manifesto cont. ...)

Object oriented databases manifesto cont1

Computational completeness Databases

OR databases: Turing complete ‘query’ language: SQL99 code executes on server

OO databases: C++/Java code with embedded OQL statements executes in client (web server)


OO databases: transparent access to persistent object by swizzling

OR databases: embedded queries to access persistent objects

Secondary storage management

OR databases: indexes can be implemented by user (difficult!)


OO databases: good support for long transactions

OR database: good support for short transactions

Ad hoc query facility

OO Databases: weak

OR Databases: very strong

Object-Oriented Databases (manifesto cont. ...)

Object oriented databases manifesto cont2

Data independence Databases

OO Databases: weak

OR Databases: strong


Important for data independence

Query language required

Only in OR databases!

Schema evolution

Relational DBs have it!

Fully supported in OR databases, primitive in OO databases

Object-Oriented Databases (manifesto cont. ...)

Object database standards
Object Database Standards Databases

  • Object-Oriented DBMS Standard

    • The ODMG standard proposal:

      • R. Cattell, Ed.: The ODMG-93 Standard for Object Databases, Morgan-Kaufmann Publishers, San Mateo, California, 1993.

    • Includes an Object Data Model

    • Object Query Language: OQL (different model than SQL99)

  • Object-Relational DBMS Standards

    • The SQL99 (SQL3) standard proposal:

      • ISO-Final Draft International Standard (FDIS): ISO/IEC FDIS 9075-2 Database Language SQL

    • Very large (>1000 pages)

    • SQL-92 is subset

    • Much more than object-orientation included

    • Triggers, procedural language, OO, error handling, etc.

    • Certain parts, e.g. standards for procedures, error handling, triggers, already being included in the new SQL-99 standard.

Data exchange formats
Data Exchange Formats Databases


  • Standardized formats for sending data between systems

    • examples: STEP/EXPRESS, PDF, HTML, XML, VRML, MIDI, MP3, etc.

  • Engineering domain standard: STEP (standard for exchange of product data)

    • STEP is an industry wide ISO standard for exchange of mainly engineering (CAx etc.) data

    • separates meta-data (schema) and data as for databases

    • EXPRESS is data model in database terms: i.e. it is the language in which to define the schema.

    • STEP models are standardized schemas for different engineering application areas, e.g. AP209

    • The exchanged data follows specialized STEP schemas, e.g. PART 21 most common (XML based too, PART 29)

    • CAx vendors normally not able to handle EXPRESS schemas

    • Only PART 29 files following a specific schema, e.g. AP 209

Data exchange formats1
Data Exchange Formats Databases

  • The STEP/EXPRESS and database community sometimes use the same terminology with different meanings:

  • Data model:

    • database world: schema language (i.e. EXPRESS is a data model)

    • STEP/EXPRESS world: here a particular schema definition written in EXPRESS

    • We therefore avoid the word data model to minimize confusion

  • Multi-level schema architecture:

    • database world: external - conceptual - internal schemas

    • STEP/EXPRESS world:

      • Application protocol, AP (c.f. external schema)

      • Integrated resources, IR (c.f. conceptual schema)

Data exchange formats2
Data Exchange Formats Databases

  • The XML language

  • Extension of HTML to be able to define own tags in web documents,

    • for example:<polygon><line><start>1.2 1.3</start></end>2.1 3.4</end></line><line><start>2.1 3.4</start></end>4.6 4.2</end></line></polygon>

  • Can also define DTD which is grammar for allowed tags in the documents referencing it

  • DTDs are more or less well specified schemas

  • On-going work to define real schema language for XML: SMLSchema

  • XML not object-oriented - only nested structures

Introduction to amos ii and amosql

Introduction to AMOS II and AMOSQL Databases

Kjell Orsborn

Uppsala Database Laboratory,Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

Iris openodb odapter amos ii object relational dbms

IRIS Databases

1st Object-Relational DBMS: Iris research prototype developed in Database Technology Department of HP Laboratories

Iris’ query language OSQL is a functional query language

OpenODB/Odapter is the HP product based on Iris


AMOS II developed at UDBL but has its roots in Iris

AMOS II runs on PCs under Windows NT/2000 and Solaris

AMOS II uses query language AMOSQL

AMOS II system is a fast main-memory DBMS

AMOS II has single user or optional client-server configuration

The object part of SQL99 is close to AMOSQL

Mediator facilities: AMOS II is also a multi-database (mediator) system for integrationg data from other databases

Iris/OpenODB/Odapter/AMOS II Object-Relational DBMS

Amos ii iris data model

Basic elements in the AMOS II data model Databases

AMOS II / Iris Data Model

Amos ii data model

Objects: Databases

Atomic entities (no attributes)

Belong to one or more types where one type is the most specific type

Regard database as set of objects

Built-in atomic types, literals:

String, Integer, Real, Boolean

Collection types:

Bag, Vector

Surrogate types:

objects have unique object identifiers(OIDs)

explicit creation and deletion

DBMS manages OIDs

AMOSQL example:

create person instances :tore;

AMOS II Data Model

Amos ii data model1

Types: Databases

Classification of objects

groups of OIDs belong to different types

Multiple inheritance supported

Organized in a type/subtype Directed Acyclic Graph

defines that OIDs of one type is a subset of OIDs of other types

Types and functions are objects too

of types “type” and “function”

Part of the AMOS II type hierarchy:

AMOS II Data Model

Amos ii data model2

Types continued…: Databases

Every object is an instance of at least one type

A type set is associated with each OID

Each OID has one most specific type

Each surrogate type has an extent which is the set of objects having that type in its type set.

System understands subtype/supertype relationships

Objects of user-defined types are instances of type Type and subtypes of UserObject

User defined objects always contains class UserObject in its type set

Object types may change dynamically (roles)

AMOS II Data Model

Amos ii data model3

Functions: Databases

Define semantics of objects:

properties of objects

relationships among objects

views on objects

stored procedures for objects

Functions are instances of type Function

More than one argument allowed

Bag valued results allowed, e.g. Parents

Multiple valued results allowed

Sets of multiple tuple valued results most general

AMOS II Data Model

Amos ii data model4

A function has two parts: Databases

1) signature:

name and types or arguments and results


name(person p) -> charstring nname(department d) -> charstring ndept(employee e) -> department dplus(number x, number y) ->number rchildren(person m, person f) -> bag of person cmarriages(person p) -> bag of <Person s, Integer year>

2) implementation:

specifies how to compute outputs from valid inputs

non-procedural specifications, except for stored procedures

A function also contains an extent, i.e. a set of mappings from argument(s) to result(s)

for example:name(:tore) = ‘Tore’name(:d1) = ‘Toys’dept(:tore) = :d1plus(1,2) = 3 or (1+2 = 3) Indefinite extent!children(:tore,:ulla) = {:karl,:oskar}marriages(:tore) = {<:eva, 1971>,<:ulla,1981>}

AMOS II Data Model

Amos ii data model5

AMOSQL has four kinds of functions: Databases

1) stored functions (c.f. relational tables, object attributes)

values stored explicitly in database

2) derived functions (c.f. relational views, object methods)

defined in terms of queries and other functions using AMOSQL

compiled and optimized by Amos when defined for later use

3) database procedures (c.f. stored procedures, object methods)

for procedural computations over the database

4) foreign functions (c.f. object methods)

escape to programming language (Java, C, or Lisp) e.g. for foreign database access

Functions can also be overloaded:

overloaded functions have several different definition depending on the types of their arguments and results.

AMOS II Data Model

Amosql language schema definition and manipulation

Creating types: Databases

create type Person;

create type Student under Person;

create type Instructor under Person;

create type TAssistant under Student, Instructor;

AMOSQL language - schema definition and manipulation

Amosql language schema manipulation

Delete a type: Databases

delete type Person;

referential integrity maintained

types Person, Student, Instructor and TAssistent also deleted

Create functions:

create function name (Person p) -> Charstring nm as stored;

create function name (Course) -> Charstring as stored;

create function teaches(Instructor) -> bag of Course as stored;

create function enrolled(Student) -> bag of Course as stored;

create function instructors(Course c) -> Instructor i as select i where teaches(i) = c;

The instructors functionis the inverse of teaches

AMOSQL language - schema manipulation

Amosql language schema manipulation1

Delete functions: Databases

delete function teaches;

referential integrity maintained.

e.g. function instructors also deleted

Defining type and attributes:

create type Person properties(name Charstring,birthyear Integer,hobby Charstring);

name, birthyear, hobby are defined together with type Person

Above equivalent to:

create type Person;create function name(Person) -> Charstring as stored;create function birthyear(Person) -> Integer as stored;create function hobby(Person) -> Charstring as stored;

AMOSQL language - schema manipulation

Amosql language schema manipulation2

Example of inherited properties: Databases

create type Person properties (name Charstring key, age Integer, spouse Person);

create type Employee under Person properties (dept Department);

Employee will have functions (attributes) name, age, spouse, dept

Can easily extend with new functions:

create function phone(Person) -> Charstring as stored;

AMOSQL language - schema manipulation

Amosql language schema manipulation3

Modeling relationships with cardinality constraints Databases

create function enrolled(Student e nonkey) -> Course c nonkey as stored;

create function teaches(Instructor i key) -> Course c nonkey as stored;

Modeling properties of relationships by multi-argument stored functions:

create function score(Student,Course) -> Integer s as stored;

Modeling properties of relationships by multi-argument derived functions:

create function instructors(Student s, Course c) -> Teacher t asselect t where teaches(t) = c and enrolled(s) = c;

AMOSQL language - schema manipulation

Amosql language data definition and manipulation

Instance creation Databases:

create Person(name, birthyear) instances:risch (’T.J.M. Risch’, 1949),:ketabchi (’M.A. Ketabchi’, 1950);

equivalent formulation:create Person instances :ketabchi, :risch;set name(:risch) = ’T.J.M. Risch’;set birthyear(:risch) = 1949;set name(:ketabchi)= ’M.A. Ketabchi’;set birthyear(:ketabchi)=1950;

Instance deletion:

delete :risch;delete :ketabchi;

AMOSQL language - data definition and manipulation

Amosql language data manipulation

Calling Databases functions:

name(:risch);’T.J.M. Risch’

equivalent formulation:select name(:risch);’T.J.M. Risch’

Adding elements to bag-valued functions:

add hobbies(:risch) = ‘Painting’;add hobbies(:risch) = ‘Fishing’;add hobbies(:risch) = ‘Sailing’;hobbies(:risch);‘Painting’‘Fishing’‘Sailing’

AMOSQL language - data manipulation

Amosql language data definition and manipulation1

Removing Databases elements from set-valued functions:

remove hobbies(:risch) = ‘Fishing’;hobbies(:risch);‘Painting’‘Sailing’

Addingtype to object:

add type Teacher to :risch;set teaches(:risch)= :math;

Removing type from object:

remove type Teacher from :risch;teaches(:risch);Error: Function teaches not defined for object

This will also implicitly doremove teaches(:risch) = :math;Good for database evolution.

AMOSQL language - data definition and manipulation

Amosql queries

AMOSQL power: relationally complete and more Databases

General format:

select <expressions>from <variable declarations>where <predicate>;


select name(p), birthyear(p) from Person p;

Function composition simplifies queries that traverse function graph (Daplex semantics):


More SQLish:

select nfrom Charstring n, Person par, Person frwhere n = name(par) and par = parents(fr) and fr = friends(:risch);

Works also for bag-valued arithmetic functions:


AMOSQL queries

Amosql examples

Examples of functions and Databasesad hoc queries

create function income(Person) -> Integer as stored;create function taxes(Person) -> Integer as stored;create function parents(Person) -> bag of Person as stored;create function netincome(Person p) -> Integer as select income(p)-taxes(p);create function sparents(Person c) -> Student as select parents(c); /* Parent if parent is student; bag of implicit for derived functions */create function grandsparentsnetincomes(Person c) -> Integer as select netincome(sparents(parents(c)));select name(c)from Person cwhere grandsparentsnetincomes(c) > 100000 and income(c) <10000;

AMOSQL examples

Amosql aggregation functions

An aggregation function is a function that coerces some value to a single unit, a bag, before it is called.

“bagged” arguments are not “distributed” as for other AMOSQL functions (no Daplex semantics for aggregation functions)



create function count(bag of Object) -> Integer as foreign ...;

Nested queries, local bags:

sum(select income(p) from Person p);

AMOSQL aggregation functions

Amosql quantification

Quantifiers value to a single unit, a

Existential and universal quantification over subqueries supported through two aggregation operators:

create function notany(bag of object) -> boolean;

create function some(bag of object) -> boolean;

some tests if there exists some element in the bag

notany tests if there does not exist some element in the bag


create function maxincome(Dept d) -> Integer as select income(p)from Employee pwhere dept(p) = d and notany(select true from Employee q where income(q) > income(p));

AMOSQL quantification

Amosql advanced updates

Set-oriented updates value to a single unit, a

Setting multiple function instances:

set salary(e) = sfrom Employee e, Integer swhere s=salary(manager(e));

Removing values from set-valued functions:

remove friends(:risch) = ffrom Person fwhere age(f) > age(:risch);

remove friends(:risch) = p from Person pwhere count(friends(p))>5;

AMOSQL advanced updates

Amosql stored procedures

Database Procedures value to a single unit, a

For example to encapsulate database updates:

create function creperson(charstring nm, integer inc) -> person p asbegin create person instances p; set name(p) = nm; set income(p) = inc; result pend;

Optimized iterative update:

create function RemoveOldFriends(Person p) -> boolean asbegin remove friends(p) = s from Person s where age(s) > age(p); end;RemoveOldFriends(:risch);

AMOSQL stored procedures

Amosql sequences
AMOSQL sequences value to a single unit, a

Vectors (ordered sequences of objects)

  • The datatype vector stores ordered sequences of objects of any type

  • Vector declarations can be parameterized by declaring the typeVector of <type> as for example:

    • create type Segment properties(start Vector of Real, stop Vector of Real);

    • create type Polygon properties(segments Vector of Segment);

  • Vector values have system provided constructors:

    • create Segment instances :s1, :S2;set start(:s1)=Vector of Real(1.1, 2.3);set stop(:s1)=Vector of Real(2.3, 4.6);set start(:s2)=Vector of Real(2.8, 5.3);

    • create Polygon instances :p1;set segments(:p1)=Vector of Segment(:s1, :s2);

Amosql sequences1
AMOSQL sequences value to a single unit, a

  • Extended ER notation:

  • Vector types can be used as any other type

  • E.g. functions on sequences can be defined:

    • create function square(Number r)->Number as select r * r;

    • create function positive(Number r)->Number as select r where r>=0;

    • create function length(Segment l) -> realas select positive(sqrt(square(start(l)[0] - stop(l)[0]) + square(start(l)[1] - stop(l)[1])));

    • create function length(Polygon p) -> realas select sum(select length(segments(p)[i]) from Integer i);

  • Vector queries:

    • length(:s1);

    • length(:p1);

    • select s from Segment s where length(s) > 1.34;

Amosql schema queries

System data can be queried as any other database data as for example:

Find the names of the supertypes of EMPLOYEE:


Find the resolvents of an overloaded function:


Find the types of the first argument of each resolvent of a function:


Find all functions whose single argument have type PERSON


AMOSQL schema queries

How to run amos ii

Install system on your PC by downloading it from example:

Run AMOS II with:


User’s guide in:

Simple AMOS II tutorial in

How to run AMOS II

Am osql in iris openodb amos ii

Summary: example:

(AM)OSQL provides flexible OR DBMS capabilities

Not hard wired object model, but dynamically extensible model

Extended subset of object part of SQL99

Very good support for ad hoc queries

Good schema modification operations

Object views

The key is the functional model of (AM)OSQL