10 2 estimating a population mean unknown
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10-2 Estimating a Population Mean (σ Unknown). When we substitute the standard error of xbar for its standard deviation, the distribution of the resulting statistic, t , is not Normal. We call it the t distribution. The t distributions.

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10-2 Estimating a Population Mean (σ Unknown)

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10 2 estimating a population mean unknown

10-2

Estimating a Population Mean

(σ Unknown)


The t distributions

When we substitute the standard error of xbar for its standard deviation, the distribution of the resulting statistic, t, is not Normal.

We call it the t distribution.

The t distributions


There is a different t distribution for each sample size n

There is a different t-distribution for each sample size n.

The t distributions

We specify a t distribution by giving its degrees of freedom, which is equal to n-1

We will write the t distribution with k degrees of freedom as t(k) for short.

We also will refer to the standard Normal distribution as the z-distribution.


Y1 normalpdf x

Y1= normalpdf(x)

Comparing t and z distributions

Y2= tpdf(x,2) (DISTR menu)

Window X[-3,3] Y[-0.1,0.4]

Y2= tpdf(x,9)

Y2= tpdf(x,30)


Comparing t and z distributions

Comparing t and z distributions

Compare the shape, center, and spread of the t-distribution with the z-distribution.

As the degrees of freedom k increase, the t(k) density curve approaches the N(0,1) curve ever more closely. As the sample size increases, s estimates σ ever more closely.


Finding t with table c

Suppose you want to construct a 95% confidence interval for the mean mu of a population based on a SRS of size n=12. What critical value t* should you use?

Finding t* with Table C

If you have a TI-84+, you can use invT((1+C)/2, df) to find t*.


10 2 estimating a population mean unknown

Note: When the actual df does not appear in Table C, use the greatest df available that is less than your desired df.

Finding t* with Table C


Recall the inference tool box

Recall the inference tool-box

One sample t interval for mu


One sample t interval for mu

Environmentalists, government officials, and vehicle manufacturers are all interested in studying the auto exhaust emissions produced by motor vehicles. The table gives the nitrogen oxide (NOX) levels for a random sample of light-duty engines of the same type.

One sample t interval for mu


10 2 estimating a population mean unknown

Construct a 95% confidence interval for the mean amount of NOX emitted by light-duty engines of this type.

One sample t interval for mu


Step 1 parameter

Step 1: Parameter

One sample t interval for mu

Step 2: Conditions

Step 3:Calculations


Step 1 parameter1

Step 1: Parameter

One sample t interval for mu

Step 2: Conditions

Step 3:Calculations

Step 4:Interpretation

Remember the three C's! Conclusion, Connection, Context


Recall matched pairs design

Matched pairs is a form of block design in which just two treatments are compared.

Subjects are matched in pairs and each treatment is given to one subject in each pair.

Recall matched pairs design...

or...

each subject receives both treatments in some randomized order


Is it a matched pairs design

Is it a matched pairs design?

When you have two sets of data, ask yourself if there is something that links the values in pairs and, therefore, prevents them from being independent. If so, a one-sample procedure is optimal.

Inference procedures for two samples assume that the samples are selected independently of each other. This assumption does not hold when the same subjects are measured twice.


10 2 estimating a population mean unknown

Notice that paired t procedures are also useful in before and after observations on the same subjects.

Too many numbers what do I do?


10 2 estimating a population mean unknown

Warning: I probably shouldn’t even show you the next slide.Don’t even think about writing it down… it’s on page 651.


The parameter in a paired t procedure is

The parameter µ in a paired t procedure is...

  • The mean difference in the responses to the two treatments within matched pairs of subjects in the entire population (when subjects are matched in pairs), or...

  • The mean difference in response to the two treatments for individuals in the population (when the same subject receives both treatments), or...

  • The mean difference between before-and-after measurements for all individuals in the population (for before-and-after observations on the same individuals).


The parameter in a paired t procedure is1

The parameter µ in a paired t procedure is...

Okay so it’s the difference in the means for the entire population.


10 2 estimating a population mean unknown

Example 10.10 pg 651

Construct and interpret a 90% confidence interval for the mean change in depression score.

Paired t procedures


Randomization

Random Selection of individuals for a statistical study allows us to generalize the results of that study to a larger population.

Random Assignment of treatments to subjects in an experiment lets us investigate whether there is evidence of a treatment effect (cause and effect). That is it lets us compare results of different treatments.

Randomization


10 2 estimating a population mean unknown

The t-procedures are not robust against outliers, because xbar and s are not resistant to outliers.


10 2 estimating a population mean unknown

Has the Normality assumption been met for a one sample t interval for mu?

NPP


One sample t interval for mu1

Without the outlier, the interval is much narrower and centered differently (1.165, 1.421). Can we really be 95% confident in either interval?

No, since the outlier suggests that the population may not be Normal.

One sample t interval for mu


Robust procedures

T procedures are not robust against outliers, but they are quite robust against non-Normality of the population when there are no outliers, especially when the distribution is roughly symmetric.

ALWAYS make a plot to check for skewness and outliers BEFORE using t procedures for small samples.

Robust Procedures


Robust procedures1

Larger samples improve the accuracy of critical values from the t distribution when the population is not normal.

For most purposes, you can safely use the one-sample t procedures when unless an outlier or some strong skewness is present.

Robust Procedures


10 2 estimating a population mean unknown

Why can’t I use a z procedure if n is large?Because σ is unknown!


Can we use t

Given the percent of each state's residents who are at least 65 years of age, can or should we use t to approximate the mean of these percents?

Hint: This is a population not a sample. Do we want to estimate a parameter when we have a census?

Can we use t?


Can we use t1

Given the time of the first lightning strike each day in a mountain region of Colorado, can or should we use t procedures to draw conclusions about the mean time of a day's first lightning strike with complete confidence?

Hint: n =70 and the distribution is what shape?

Can we use t?


Given the distribution of word lengths in shakespeare s plays hint n is unknown

Given the distribution of word lengths in Shakespeare's plays?

Hint: n is unknown.

Can we use t?


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