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Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Social Perception






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Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Social Perception. Michael Evans. Eyewitness Testimony. Mistaken identification Largest single cause of false conviction Accounts for more criminal convictions of innocent people than all other causes combined
Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Social Perception

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Slide 1

Stereotyping, Prejudice,

and Social Perception

Slide 2

Michael Evans

Slide 3

Eyewitness Testimony

  • Mistaken identification

    • Largest single cause of false conviction

    • Accounts for more criminal convictions of innocent people than all other causes combined

    • In lineups, witnesses pick “filler” suspects approximately 33% of the time

    • Of 235 cases exonerated by DNA, 77% were convicted, in part, on the basis of faulty eyewitness testimony

    • Average time between arrest and exoneration = 12 years

Slide 4

Race Affects Recognition Accuracy

  • Cross Race Recognition Deficit or Own-Race Effect

    • 1.56 times more likely mistaken ID

    • 1.4 times more likely correct ID for same race

      • Kindergarteners

      • 3rd graders

      • Adults

      • Cross-culturally

    • Of the cases of the exonerated involving eyewitness testimony, 40% involved cross-race recognition

Slide 5

Cross-Race Recognition Deficit

  • Contact/Familiarity

    • Lack of expertise as to the features that actually distinguish outgroup members from one another

    • But, contact accounts for only about 2% of the variance in the CRRD

  • Feature coding asymmetry for outgroups

    • Based on motivation to individuate ingroup but not outgroup members

      • Code race-specifying features at expense of individuating features

Slide 6

Motivation and Cross-Race Recognition

Pauker et al., 2009

Slide 7

Racial Stereotypes and Social Cognition

  • Stereotype: A cognitive schema that contains a person’s knowledge, beliefs, and expectancies about a human group

    • Allow you to anticipate the behavior of others

    • Allow you to understand and interpret behavior

      • Especially if it is ambiguous

      • Fill in the blanks

    • Allow you to organize and structure your social experiences

    • They serve these functions even if they are objectively inaccurate

Slide 8

Stereotypes and Memory

  • Outgroup recognition is particularly poor when targets are paired with stereotypic behaviors

  • For example, Black targets are particularly likely to be misidentified as the authors of hostile or criminal behavior versus kind or pro-social behavior

  • People use the stereotype to reconstruct who must have engaged in the behavior

Sherman et al., 1998, 2000

Slide 9

Stereotyping and Attention

  • Black faces draw and hold attention of White observers

    • Particularly to the extent that perceivers associate Blacks with danger

    • Just like spiders, snakes, angry faces

    • Even when faces are presented too quickly to be noticed

Donders et al., 2008

Slide 10

Stereotyping and Attention

  • Surreptitiously activating thoughts of crime enhances this effect

    • Study conducted with police officers

  • However, greater attention was associated with false recognition of faces that were more stereotypically “Black” than the ones that actually appeared

    • Thoughts of crime drew attention to Black faces, but distorted the memories of those faces to be stereotypical

    • More attention does not necessarily mean better memory if the attention is biased by stereotypic expectancies

    • May contribute to cross-race errors in eyewitness identification

Eberhardt et al., 2005

Slide 11

Stereotypes and Construal

  • Stereotypes affect basic aspects of face perception

  • Black men seem to anger more quickly and smile more slowly than white men

    • May influence encoding and subsequent memory of potential defendants

Hugenberg & Bodenhausen, 2003

Slide 12

Stereotypes and Construal

“Two residents wade through chest-deep water after finding bread and soda from a local grocery store after Hurricane Katrina”

Slide 13

Stereotypes and Construal

“Looters hit a drug store in the French Quarter district of New Orleans”

Slide 14

Gun Tool

Slide 15

FASTER, MORE ACCURATE

SLOWER, LESS ACCURATE

Payne, 2001

Slide 16

Stereotypes and Construal

Eberhardt et al., 2005

Slide 17

Potential influence on misidentification and worse

Amadou Diallo

Slide 22

Correll et al., 2002

  • Subjects paid for accurate performance

False Kills per 20 Targets

Slide 23

Stereotypes and Sentencing

  • Longer sentences given for stereotypic crimes

    • Assault: Latino > Caucasian

    • Embezzlement: Caucasian > Latino

    • Attributions

      • Stereotypical = intentional, likely to be repeated

      • Counter-stereotypical = special situation, not likely to be repeated

Bodenhausen & Wyer, 1985

Slide 24

Stereotypes and the Death Penalty

  • More stereotypically “Black” convicts are more likely to receive the death penalty

    • But only for killing White people, not Black people

Eberhardt et al., 2006

Slide 25

Prejudice Enhances all of these Effects

  • Prejudice = negative evaluations of social groups

  • Not necessarily endorsed prejudice

    • Most people won’t openly admit to prejudice

    • Sometimes we are unaware of our own subtle biases

  • Implicit measures of prejudice prevent intentional misrepresentation and reveal biases of which we may be unaware

Slide 26

IAT Demo

Slide 27

BlackWhite

Jamal

Andrew

Luther

Richard

Jeffrey

Tyrone

Antoine

Chris

Tayshaun

Steven

David

Jaron

Slide 28

BadGood

Rainbow

Love

Death

Happiness

Disease

Decay

Hate

Puppy

Kill

Flower

Pain

Peace

Slide 29

Left RightBlack/Bad White/Good

Rainbow Hate

Jaron Jamal

David Andrew

Love Puppy

Death Antoine

Tyrone Kill

Happiness Richard

Steven Flower

Disease Jeffrey

Luther Pain

Tayshaun Peace

Decay Chris

Slide 30

GoodBad

Rainbow

Love

Death

Happiness

Disease

Decay

Hate

Puppy

Kill

Flower

Pain

Peace

Slide 31

Left RightBlack/Good White/Bad

Rainbow Hate

Jaron Jamal

David Andrew

Love Puppy

Death Antoine

Tyrone Kill

Happiness Richard

Steven Flower

Disease Jeffrey

Luther Pain

Tayshaun Peace

Decay Chris

Slide 32

Implicit Prejudice

  • Some facts:

    • A large majority (85%) of non-Black Americans show a pro-White bias

    • About 1/3 Black Americans show pro-White, 1/3 show no bias, and 1/3 show pro-Black bias

    • Scores on the IAT and other implicit measures do not correlate with scores on explicit measures (e.g., rating scale, questionnaires)

    • Solution to “unwilling & unable” problems

    • Predict perceptual and behavioral biases better than prejudice measured with scales/questionnaires


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