The principalship vision to action
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The Principalship: Vision to Action. Fred C. Lunenberg Beverly J. Irby. Table of Contents (Click chapter title to navigate). Chapter 1: Cultivating Community, Culture and Learning Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation

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The principalship vision to action

The Principalship:Vision to Action

Fred C. Lunenberg

Beverly J. Irby


Table of contents click chapter title to navigate

Table of Contents(Click chapter title to navigate)

Chapter 1: Cultivating Community, Culture and Learning

Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning

Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation

Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning

Chapter 5: Professional Development

Chapter 6: Student Services

Chapter 7: Organizational Structures

Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker


The principalship vision to action

Table of Contents (cont’d)(Click chapter title to navigate)

Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication

Chapter 10: The Principal and Change

Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities

Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools

Chapter 13: Human Resource Management

Chapter 14: Community Relations

Chapter 15: The Principal and Ethics

Chapter 16: Political and Policy Context

Chapter 17: Legal Issues


Chapter 1 cultivating community culture and learning

Chapter 1:Cultivating Community, Culture and Learning

Community

Culture

Learning


Interstate school leaders licensure consortium isllc standards for school leaders

Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning

Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) Standards for School Leaders

  • Review the language of the seven standards in your text book

  • Re-write each in “plain” English

  • Discuss the purpose of each standard; i.e. Why would the Consortium consider this a valuable standard?


The role of the principal

Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning

The Role of the Principal

  • Historically:

A NEW APPROACH


The principalship vision to action

Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning

LEADING FROM THE CENTER


Compare and contrast the historic approach to the new approach

Historic

Principal rules top-down

Leadership dispersed according to authority

A “power over” approach

Principal is the leader

New

Principal works collaboratively

Leadership dispersed according to competence

A “power to” approach

Principal is the leader of leaders

Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning

Compare and Contrast the Historic Approach to the New Approach

Briefly discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. What factors might have contributed to the shifting paradigm?


Creating a professional learning community

Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning

tradition of isolation

SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT

Creating a Professional Learning Community

  • Create a mission statement: Why does the school exist? What is its purpose?

  • Develop a vision: What does the school wish to become?

  • How can schools avoid the following?


The principalship vision to action

Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning

Creating a Professional Learning Community (cont’d)

  • Develop value statements: What attitudes and behaviors do stakeholders value and which will teachers pledge to demonstrate?

  • Establish Goals:

    • Concrete evidence of implementation of school improvement

    • Influenced by a district’s administrators

    • Reflect a desired end result

BENEFITS TO SETTING GOALS


Setting clearly defined goals benefits all stakeholders by fostering

Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning

Setting clearly defined goals benefits all stakeholders by fostering…

  • Commitment: individuals have a personal stake in outcomes

  • Standards: enable principals to analyze performance objectively

  • Targets: give individuals a concrete outcome, rather than a subjective one

  • Motivation: encourages individuals to perform at highest levels


What is the practical application of the vision setting process

Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning

VISION

What is the practical application of the vision setting process?

  • A properly conceived vision serves as a filter for the myriad of daily decisions a principal is asked to make.

What can be done about truancies?

Decisions that benefit all stakeholders in an ethical and fair manner

What should we do about poor test scores?

How should I handle Mr. Johnson’s yearly review?


Developing a culture

Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning

Developing a Culture

  • What is culture?

    • The most common characteristics of culture:

Consider heroes and heroines, traditions and rituals, and cultural networks


Maintaining school culture

Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning

Maintaining School Culture

REMEMBER:

If you do not carefully

create and maintain the

desired school culture,

it will create itself.

  • Hire staff carefully

  • Train staff in desired school culture

  • Instruct staff in technical aspects of job

  • Reward staff for performances that reflect the values of the culture

  • Adhere closely to values of the culture

  • Reinforce rites and rituals of culture

  • Identify and make available staff to serve as role models


The principal as instructional leader

Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning

The Principal as Instructional Leader

The focus on results, the focus on student achievement, the focus on students learning at high levels - can only happen if teaching and learning become the central focus of the school and the central focus of theprincipal(Blase & Blase, 2003; Castallo, 2001; Lambert, 2003).


Shift instruction from teaching to learning

Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning

Shift instruction from teaching to learning…

  • Focus on learning: What is the difference between teaching and learning? What questions do you need to consider to facilitate this shift?

  • Encourage Collaboration: Why is collaboration beneficial?

  • Analyze Results: What type of data should be disaggregated and into what categories?


Shift instruction from teaching to learning1

Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning

Shift instruction from teaching to learning…

  • Provide Support: What training do teachers need to facilitate this shift? What would the outcome of this support and shift look like in the classroom?

  • Align Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment: How does this reflect NCLB? Despite criticisms of “teaching to a test,” what are the clear benefits to an assessment driven curriculum?


The principalship vision to action

End Presentation

Return to Table of Contents

Return to Beginning of Current Chapter

Proceed to Next Chapter


Chapter 2 creating a vision for learning

Chapter 2:Creating a Vision for Learning

Standard 2: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by promoting a positive school culture, providing an effective educational program, applying best practices to student learning, and designing comprehensive professional growth plans for staff.


Gaining a perspective on the vision considering the future

Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning

Gaining a Perspective on the Vision: Considering the Future

  • In addition to critical thinking and imagination, the following factors must be considered in creating a vision:

    • The Global Society (poverty, race, gender, assimilation, etc.)

    • Challenges in Learning (underachieving minority groups, physical and mental abuse, other sources of “education”)

A SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE VISION CHALLENGES PRINCIPALS TO EDUCATE ALL CHILDREN


Bringing the vision home to the school culture

Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning

Bringing the Vision Home to the School Culture

  • Basic tenants of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001:

    • Schools are accountable for achievement of ALL students

    • Schools must hire highly qualified teachers

    • Schools implement research-based programs and practices

How do these criteria impact how you would create a vision for your school?


The systemic vision

Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning

The Systemic Vision

  • Contextual AND dependent upon relationships:

MISSION AND GOALS ACCOMPLISHED

District Vision, Mission, and Goals

Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values (of the leader, faculty, staff, and community)

Motivated Students

Relationships Built

Deeper Understanding of Individuals and the Organization

Campus Vision, Mission, and Goals

Collaboratively Developed Action Plan for Accomplishing Goals


Creating a vision

Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning

Creating a Vision

The principal must consider:

  • Where has the school been?

  • Where is the school currently?

  • Where should the school be in the future?

How do the conditions listed in figure 2-2 help a principal grow a vision? What roles do personal beliefs, values, and attitudes play in this growth?


The leadership framework as a doorway to creating a vision

Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning

The Leadership Framework as a Doorway to Creating a Vision

A leadership framework should include:

  • Philosophy of education

  • Philosophy of leadership

  • Vision for learners

  • Vision for teachers

  • Vision of organization

  • Vision of professional growth

  • Method of vision attainment

Why is the leadership framework a useful tool for creating a vision?


Shepherding the vision

Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning

Shepherding the Vision

BEWARE OF…

  • Tradition

  • Scorn

  • Nay-Sayers

  • Complacency

  • Weariness

  • Short-range thinking


Shepherding the vision cont d

Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning

Shepherding the Vision (cont’d)

Encourage…

  • Building ownership in the vision

  • Thinking of the long-term benefits

  • Seeking input from stakeholders

  • Building confidence in stakeholders

  • Staying with the vision

  • Staying focused

  • Keeping stakeholders alert to any changes

  • Demonstrating how focus results in efficiency, effectiveness, and productivity


Mission statements vs goal statements

Mission Statements

State the purpose of the school, both generally and specifically

Guide decision-making processes

Guided by the vision and explain how it will be obtained

Goal Statements

Break the mission and vision down into specific and measurable steps

The tangible results a school is trying to achieve

Guided by the mission and vision

Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning

Mission Statements vs. Goal Statements


Creating goals to obtain a vision

Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning

Creating Goals to Obtain a Vision

  • Consider the hierarchy of goals: A means-end analysis can help a principal prioritize and organize goals

    What is necessary for the hierarchy shown in figure 2-3 to operate cohesively in order to achieve a stated vision?


What makes an effective goal

Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning

What Makes an Effective Goal?

  • Clarity and specificity

  • Time frame

  • Key areas

  • Challenging but realistic

  • Linked to rewards

    Why are these criteria needed for a goal to be considered “effective”?


The goal setting process

Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning

The Goal Setting Process

Revise and Update

Setting Goals

Developing Action Plans

Recycle

Monitoring Performance

Revise and Update

Evaluating Results


Common problems with goal setting

Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning

Common Problems with Goal Setting

  • Lack of top-management support

  • Time-consuming

  • Excessive paperwork

  • Overemphasis on quantitative goals

  • Administrative style

  • Prepackaged programs

How would you overcome each of these obstacles?


Tips for effective goal setting

Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning

Tips for Effective Goal Setting

  • Develop a specific organizational structure

  • Create a positive leadership climate

  • Maintain the means-ends chain of goals

  • Train principals

  • Emphasize periodic feedback sessions

Once goals have been set, the principal must determine HOW they will be obtained. This leads to…


Developing plans for attaining goals

Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning

Time Frame for Plans

Developing Plans for Attaining Goals

Operational plans are developed at the lower levels of the district to specify the means toward achieving operational goals and supporting tactical planning activities

Standing plans are predetermined statements that help decision makers handle repetitive situations in a consistent manner

Strategic plans define the means by which the goals of the school are to be attained

Tactical plans are designed to help execute strategic plans and to accomplish a specific part of the district’s strategy

Operational Plan

Operational Plan

Operational Plan

Operational Plan

Standing Plans

Standing Plans

Standing Plans

Standing Plans

Tactical Plan

Tactical Plan

Strategic Plan


The principalship vision to action

End Presentation

Return to Table of Contents

Return to Beginning of Current Chapter

Proceed to Next Chapter


Chapter 3 curriculum development and implementation

Chapter 3:Curriculum Development and Implementation

Standard 2: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by promoting a positive school culture, providing an effective educational program, applying best practices to student learning, and designing comprehensive professional growth plans for staff.


Concepts and models of curriculum

Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation

Concepts and Models of Curriculum

  • Consider the traditional concepts and models of curriculum outlined in the first 15 pages of chapter 3.

  • Which of these do you most closely align yourself? Why? What different visions and goals would emerge from each of these models?

  • Now, let’s look at some more modern curriculum models…


Modern models of curriculum

Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation

A closer look…

Modern Models of Curriculum

  • Most have an emphasis on “interdisciplinary courses, open-ended systems, intergenerational and inter-professional relationships, Socratic dialogue, multi-dimensional assessments, and multiculturalism” (McNabb, 1995).

  • Most are open educational systems

  • Consider the above statements and the late 20th century definitions of curriculum in your textbook.

How do modern models of curriculum reflect today’s society?


The irby and lunenberg model

Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation

The Irby and Lunenberg Model

Curriculum must be:

  • Led by the principal but developed collaboratively

  • Considerate of the community

  • Responsive to student needs

  • Connected to vision and mission of the school

  • Reflective of the needs of a global society

  • Able to be assessed in terms of student performance

  • Integrated systematically


The ornstein model

Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation

The Ornstein Model

  • Systemic approach: recognizes that the actions within the organization impact curriculum decisions

  • 7 categories to the model:

    • Political Forces

    • Knowledge Industry

    • External Groups

    • Content

    • Instructional Activities

    • Evaluation

    • Supervision of Curriculum

Examine Figure 3-6. How do these 7 categories interact to create a model of curriculum?


The eisner model

Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation

The Eisner Model

  • Five dimensions needed for successful schools:

    • The Intentional

    • The Structural

    • The Curriculum

    • The Pedagogical

    • The Evaluative

What is meant by each of these dimensions and how could they work together to create successful schools?


Relationship of curriculum to instruction

Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation

Relationship of Curriculum to Instruction

  • Functions of a Curriculum Plan

    • To produce a curriculum for an identifiable population

    • To implement the curriculum in a specific school

    • To appraise the effectiveness of the curriculum developed

Read the 15 characteristics identified by Tomlinson and Allan. Why must a principal take these characteristics into consideration in order to make positive changes to the curriculum?


The principal as the curriculum and instructional leader

Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation

The Principal as the Curriculum and Instructional Leader

  • While the principal does not need to provide ALL of the curriculum leadership, the most effective ones collect information and use it to facilitate curriculum development

  • In order to share the responsibility for curriculum leadership a principal should:

    • Allow teachers to take responsibility for curriculum

    • Arrange schedule to give teachers time to work on curriculum

    • Provide staff development

    • Provide resources

    • Create a community of learners (see Figure 13-9)


Curriculum goals and instructional objectives

Curriculum Goals = broad, general statements to help develop programs of instruction

What you WANT the students to do

Instructional Objectives = required performance, conditions for behavior, and level of performance

What the student actually DOES

Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation

Curriculum Goals and Instructional Objectives

  • To achieve teacher and staff “buy-in” a principal needs to offer:

    • Data that support the need for change

    • Information that supports the changes in similar contexts

    • Connection between goals and achievement measures

    • Focus on usability, simplicity, and effectiveness

    • Clear relationships between changes and the vision

    • Opportunities for teachers and staff to participate in goal and objective creation


Curriculum goals and instructional objectives cont d

Classifying objectives

Cognitive

Knowledge

Comprehension

Application

Analysis

Synthesis

Evaluation

Affective

Receiving

Responding

Valuing

Organization

Characterization

Psychomotor

Reflex movements

Basic-fundamental movements

Perceptual abilities

Physical abilities

Skilled movements

Non-discursive communication

Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation

Curriculum Goals and Instructional Objectives (cont’d)

REMEMBER: OBJECTIVES MUST CORRELATE WITH THE CURRICULUM

Refer to the 7 principles for selecting learning experiences to ensure that they foster active involvement in the learning process


Developing a needs assessment

Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation

Developing a Needs Assessment

  • Why a needs assessment?

    • Assists with developing or revising curriculum and assessment

    • Ensures a dynamic and responsive curriculum

    • Gives teachers information about learners

  • At the curriculum level, a needs assessment includes a(n):

    • Review and analysis of standards

    • Review of curriculum from successful districts

    • Interview of students, teachers, and parents

    • Review of current students’ work

    • Review of related literature and best practices


Aligning the curriculum

Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation

Aligning the Curriculum

  • After a needs assessment, curriculum alignment shows WHAT will be taught in all subject areas and at each grade level

  • Curriculum mapping provides scope and sequence of WHEN skills will be taught

  • Curriculum benchmarking provides periodic assessments and minimum standards of achievement

  • Curriculum audits help identify strengths and gaps in instructional practices

  • Instructional differentiation attempts to determine which instructional methods are best for all learners


Focusing the vision and the school s mission through curriculum

Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation

Focusing the Vision and the School’s Mission through Curriculum

QUALITY

EDUCATION

VISION

  • “The principal is the curriculum or instructional specialist or leader who does have the understanding of philosophy, the clarity of vision, and the technical skills to move his/her programs toward meaningful activity.”

  • Consider how the case study of Mauka Lani Elementary School exemplifies this alignment and call to action.

CURRICULUM


The principalship vision to action

End Presentation

Return to Table of Contents

Return to Beginning of Current Chapter

Proceed to Next Chapter


Chapter 4 teaching and learning

Chapter 4:Teaching and Learning

Standard 2: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by promoting a positive school culture, providing an effective educational program, applying best practices to student learning, and designing comprehensive professional growth plans for staff.


The principal and instructional planning

Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning

What are the benefits to instructional planning?

The Principal and Instructional Planning

  • Instructional planning should be a self-reflective tool

  • How does the cycle described in Figure 4-1 promote successful instructional planning?


Benefits of instructional planning

Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning

Benefits of Instructional Planning

  • Provides a daily map

  • Targets learner benchmarks

  • Ensures that teacher follows up on identified weaknesses

  • Reinforces teachers’ understanding of content knowledge

  • Intertwined with the curriculum alignment process

Beyond instructional planning, what are the added positive outcomes of the above listed benefits?


The principal and instructional planning cont d

Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning

The Principal and Instructional Planning (cont’d)

  • Promoting Reflective Planning: What questions would you pose to a struggling teacher concerning goals, objectives, instructional activities, assessment, revision, and implementation?


The principal and instructional planning cont d1

Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning

The Principal and Instructional Planning (cont’d)

THIS IS ONE OF

THE MAIN MANDATES

OF NCLB!

  • Using Student Data to Drive Instructional Planning: What are some of the obstacles that educators face in properly using student data to aid in instructional planning? How would you overcome these obstacles?

  • Consider the anecdote of Dr. John Barrera. How does this example demonstrate the proper use of student data?

  • REMEMBER!


The principal and instructional planning cont d2

Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning

The Principal and Instructional Planning (cont’d)

  • Using Students’ Cultural Backgrounds in Instructional Planning

    • Do not use ONLY student achievement data

    • Consider also: Ethno-instruction and Differentiated Instruction

    • Why are these two strategies increasingly important in today’s classrooms?


Information processing

Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning

Information Processing

  • Read the various theories of information processing as outlined in your text.

  • Which theory/theories do you think best explain how people process information and why?

  • Why is it important for a principal to have a working knowledge of these various theories?

  • How could you develop these theories into practical applications at your school?


The effective schools model

Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning

The Effective Schools Model

  • What makes an “effective” school? Research shows the following…

CLEAR AND FOCUSED MISSION

STRONG INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP

HIGH EXPECTATIONS

POSITIVE HOME-SCHOOL RELATIONS

FREQUENT MONITORING

SAFE AND ORDERLY ENVIRONMENT

OPPORTUNITY TO LEARN


Effective teaching practices the 12 principles

Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning

Effective Teaching Practices: The 12 Principles

  • Students can learn best within cohesive and caring communities

  • Students learn more when time is allocated to curriculum related events

  • All components of curriculum are aligned in a cohesive program designed to achieve specific goals

  • Teacher can prepare students for learning by providing initial structure


The principalship vision to action

Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning

Effective Teaching Practices: The 12 Principles (cont’d)

  • Content is explained clearly and developed with emphasis on structure and connections

  • Questions are planned to engage students in sustained discourse

  • Students receive sufficient opportunities to practice and apply what they’ve learned and to receive feedback

  • Teacher provides assistance to enable students to engage in learning activities


Effective teaching practices the 12 principles cont d

Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning

Effective Teaching Practices: The 12 Principles (cont’d)

  • Teacher models and instructs students in learning and self-regulation strategies

  • Students often benefit from working in pairs or small groups

  • Teacher uses variety of formal and informal assessment methods

  • Teacher establishes and follows through on appropriate expectations for learning outcomes


Conditions for learning and best practices

Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning

Conditions for Learning and Best Practices

  • Conditions for Learning

    • School is warm and inviting

    • Curriculum includes fine arts

    • Students learn to be effective citizens

    • Students learn to develop skills for the workplace

    • School has smaller class sizes

    • Support staff is available

    • School reviews self

    • Data and evidence drive decisions

Why are these (and the other conditions listed) considered necessary conditions for learning? Can you think of any others?


Models of observation

Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning

Models of Observation

  • Read the NCTAF’s 5 propositions deemed essential for accomplished teaching

  • Do you agree that these 5 conditions are necessary? Why/why not?

  • Can you think of any other essential propositions?

  • How can a knowledge of these 5 propositions help a principal improve the effectiveness of teaching and learning at his/her school?


Models of observation cont d

Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning

Models of Observation (cont’d)

  • Formative Evaluation

  • Summative Evaluation

  • Classroom Observations

  • Walk-Through Observations

  • Peer Coaching

As a teacher, which of these types of observation do/did you prefer? Why?

As a principal, which of these types of observation do you think will be most helpful? Why?


The principalship vision to action

End Presentation

Return to Table of Contents

Return to Beginning of Current Chapter

Proceed to Next Chapter


Chapter 5 professional development

Chapter 5:Professional Development

Standard 2: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by promoting a positive school culture, providing an effective educational program, applying best practices to student learning, and designing comprehensive professional growth plans for staff.


The mission of principals related to professional development pd

Chapter 5: Professional Development

The Mission of Principals Related to Professional Development (PD)

Well read and educated in latest research

Defines own personal, professional growth needs according to data

Scans needs of teachers, monitors instruction, and disaggregates data

Thinks forward and consequentially

Solution focused

Initiates and implements collaboratively driven professional development plan

Analyzes impact on campus

Sensitive to students and community

“THE IDEAL PD PRINCIPAL”


The principal s mission to teachers pd

Chapter 5: Professional Development

The Principal’s Mission to Teachers’ PD

PLAN:

Work with teachers to develop a comprehensive PD targeted at individual and collective needs

PROVIDE:

Resources (time and money) for teachers to be reflective about their practices

What is the advantage to this approach to teacher’s PD?


High quality pd

Chapter 5: Professional Development

High Quality PD

  • Consider Knowles observations:

    • Adult learners need to be self-directed

    • Adult learners display readiness to learn why they have a perceived need

    • Adult learners desire immediate application of new skills and knowledge

Do you agree with Knowles’ findings? What are the implications of these findings on an effective PD program?


The ten principles of effective pd

Chapter 5: Professional Development

The Ten Principles of Effective PD

  • Effective PD focuses on teachers as central to student learning, yet includes other members of the school community

  • Effective PD focuses on the individual, collegial, and organizational improvement

  • Effective PD respects and nurtures the intellectual and leadership capacity of teachers, principals, and others in the school community

  • Effective PD reflects best available research and practice in teaching, learning, and leadership

  • Effective PD enables teachers to develop further expertise in subject content, teaching strategies, uses of technologies, and other essential elements in teaching to high standards


The principalship vision to action

Chapter 5: Professional Development

The Ten Principles of Effective PD (cont’d)

  • Effective PD promotes continuous inquiry and improvement embedded in the daily life of schools

  • Effective PD is planned collaboratively by those who will participate in and facilitate that development

  • Effective PD requires substantial time and other resources

  • Effective PD is driven by a coherent long-term plan

  • Effective PD is evaluated ultimately on the basis of its impact on teacher effectiveness and student learning; and this assessment guides subsequent professional development efforts

What would a PD program that utilizes all of these principles look like?


The principal s mission for personal professional development

Chapter 5: Professional Development

The Principal’s Mission for Personal Professional Development

  • Why is it essential that principals develop their own PD plan?

  • Read the description of the PD Portfolio. What are the various components of the Portfolio and how do they work together to ensure that the principal embarks on a successful and effective PD plan?

  • Review your own Portfolio (start one if you have not already). What components are missing or need to be updated?


The principalship vision to action

End Presentation

Return to Table of Contents

Return to Beginning of Current Chapter

Proceed to Next Chapter


Chapter 6 student services

Chapter 6:Student Services

Standard 2: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by promoting a positive school culture, providing an effective educational program, applying best practices to student learning, and designing comprehensive professional growth plans for staff.


Guidance and counseling services

Chapter 6: Student Services

Guidance and Counseling Services

  • To provide for the realization of student potentialities

  • To help children with developing problems

  • To contribute to the development of the school’s curriculum

  • To provide teachers with technical assistance

  • To contribute to the mutual adjustment of students and the school

Assess the scope of the guidance and counseling services offered on your campus.


Guidance and counseling services cont d

Role of the Counselor

Personal/social issues

Educational issues

Career planning

Major Services

Assessment

Information

Placement and follow-up

Counseling (Directive, Nondirective, and Eclectic Counseling)

Chapter 6: Student Services

Guidance and Counseling Services (cont’d)


Guidance and counseling services cont d1

Chapter 6: Student Services

Guidance and Counseling Services (cont’d)

  • When evaluating the program, consider…

    • Student needs

    • Cooperation

    • Process and product

    • Balance

    • Stability

    • Flexibility

    • Qualified counselors

    • Adequate counselor-student ratio

    • Physical facilities

    • Records

Using these 10 criteria, evaluate the guidance and counseling program at your school or one you have worked at in the past. How can these characteristics help you plan for an effective program at your school?


Attendance and student records

Chapter 6: Student Services

Attendance and Student Records

  • Cumulative records should contain:

    • Personal data sheet

    • Parent’s report

    • Child’s self-concept

    • Sociogram

    • Behavior reports

    • Standardized test data

What is the purpose of ensuring that these artifacts appear in student’s cumulative record?


Evaluating student progress

Chapter 6: Student Services

Evaluating Student Progress

  • As NCLB stresses AYP and accountability, evaluating student progress has become a critical role for the 21st century principal. Assessment can serve various purposes:

    • Help student understand self

    • Provide information for education/vocational counseling

    • Help staff understand student population

    • Evaluate the academic progress of students

    • Help administrative staff appraise programs

    • Facilitate curriculum revision

    • Make instructional management decisions

    • Make decisions about screening students

    • Make program decisions


Evaluating student progress cont d

Chapter 6: Student Services

Evaluating Student Progress (cont’d)

  • While many bemoan the NCLB’s emphasis on testing, assessment clearly has its benefits if the testing program is well developed

    • Minimum components of testing battery:

      • Emerging reading tests

      • Learning readiness tests

      • Intelligence tests

      • Achievement tests

      • Interest and aptitude tests


Reporting to parents family

Chapter 6: Student Services

Reporting to Parents/Family

  • Any teacher knows that grading has its difficulties. Among them are:

    • Teacher variability

    • Unreliable aptitude scores for all students

    • Policy variability

    • Variety of alternatives to traditional methods

How can a principal account for and deal with these difficulties?

Compare your solutions with the following…


Methods of reporting grades

Chapter 6: Student Services

Methods of Reporting Grades

  • Percentage method

  • Letter method

  • Descriptive method

  • Percentile method

  • Three-group method

  • Rank method

  • T-score method

What are the benefits and draw-backs to each of these methods? In what circumstances would you use one method over another?


Extracurricular activities

Chapter 6: Student Services

Extracurricular Activities

  • Shouldn’t principals be concerned solely with the academic program at their school?

    Extracurricular activities are vital to help students develop skills and talents not readily tapped into in the traditional core subjects. Read the text’s explanation of the functions of these activities. Can you think of any others?

NO


Special education services

Chapter 6: Student Services

Special Education Services

  • Key Legislation:

    • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973

    • Education for All Handicapped Act of 1975

    • Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990

    • Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA)

  • Key Components of IDEA:

    • Related Services

    • Due Process

    • Discipline

      Make sure you are familiar with these terms and their legal implications. Remember that a principal must ensure the quality education of ALL students.


Gifted education

Chapter 6: Student Services

Gifted Education

  • The area of Gifted Education is growing rapidly and principals must be aware of how to best serve this special population. Gifted students will NOT thrive on their own; they need and deserve the services, attention, and resources to best develop their gifts and talents.

  • Refer to Figure 6-2 for a list of options that will help to meet the needs of gifted students


Bilingual education

Chapter 6: Student Services

Bilingual Education

  • As with the gifted population, students requiring bilingual services are also rapidly growing

  • Principals must consider the following when creating an ESL program:

    • State guidelines

    • Student population to be served

    • District resources


Bilingual education cont d

Chapter 6: Student Services

Bilingual Education (cont’d)

  • Principals must be aware of the following terms

    • Early-exit

    • Late-exit

    • Immersion

    • Dual immersion

    • Submersion

    • Dual-language

    • Two-way


Bilingual education cont d1

Chapter 6: Student Services

Bilingual Education (cont’d)

  • ESL Program Models:

    • Pull Out

    • Class Period

    • Shelter English or Content-based Programs

    • Structured English Immersion

    • High Intensity Language Training Programs

When would it be appropriate to use each of the above models?


The principalship vision to action

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Chapter 7 organizational structures

Chapter 7: Organizational Structures

Standard 3: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by managing the organization, operations, and resources in a way that promotes a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment.


Important concepts of organizational structure

Chapter 7: Organizational Structures

Important Concepts of Organizational Structure

  • Job Specialization

  • Departmentalization

  • Delegation

  • Decentralization

  • Span of Management

What do each of these terms mean and how do they help to explain the concept of an organizational structure?


Schools as open systems

Chapter 7: Organizational Structures

Schools as Open Systems

  • Schools are open systems because… they interact with their environments

  • Inputs = human, financial, physical, and information resources

  • Transformation Process = combining and coordinating resources to attain goals

  • Outputs = prepared and educated students, staff and community satisfaction

  • Feedback = student, parent, staff, and community reaction to output


Leadership functions

Chapter 7: Organizational Structures

Leadership Functions

Planning

Monitoring

Organizing

Leading

How can an understanding of the interplay between these functions help a principal to more effectively manage the organizational structure of their school?


Administrative roles

Chapter 7: Organizational Structures

Administrative Roles

  • Principal Activities:

    • Heavy Workload at a Fast Pace

    • Variety, Fragmentation, and Brevity

    • Oral Communication

Are these activities unique to the role of the principal? Which of these do you find most daunting? Which of these comes naturally to you?


Management skills

Chapter 7: Organizational Structures

Management Skills

  • Conceptual Skills: One’s mental ability to acquire, analyze, and interpret information

  • Human Skills: One’s ability to motivate, facilitate, coordinate, lead, communicate, manage conflict, and get along with others

  • Technical Skills: One’s ability to use knowledge, methods, and techniques of a specific discipline

Consider Figure 7-3. At what level would you place yourself? Your current administrators? How does one move “up” the hierarchy?


Effective principals

Chapter 7: Organizational Structures

Effective Principals

  • Task Dimensions: Consider Sashkin and Huddle’s 13 task dimensions of a principal. How can you deliberately design your actions to build cultural as well as managerial linkages?

  • Human Resource Activities: Consider the list of traits of ineffective administrators. Why would these be detriments to an effective principal and how could you correct each of these shortcomings?


Effective vs successful administrators

Effective = how well a principal was evaluated by subordinates

Most time on task-related communication

Human resource management

Successful = rapid promotion

Little time on human resource management

Good at networking

Politically savvy

Chapter 7: Organizational Structures

Effective vs. Successful Administrators

Are these findings surprising to you? What are their implications?


The demise of bureaucracy

Chapter 7: Organizational Structures

The Demise of Bureaucracy

  • What is the harm of bureaucracy? Explain why each of the following are seen as negative features to bureaucracy, especially in education.

    • Division of labor and specialization

    • Reliance on rules and procedures

    • Emphasis on hierarchy of authority

    • Lifelong careers and evaluation

    • Impersonality

So what are the alternatives?


Emergent models of organizational structure

Chapter 7: Organizational Structures

Emergent Models of Organizational Structure

  • System 4 Design

  • Site Based Management

  • Transformational Leadership

  • Synergistic Leadership Theory

  • Total Quality Management (TQM)

Read the description of each model carefully. Which one appeals to you the most and why? Regardless of which model you find most intriguing, consider…


10 concepts helpful in restructuring the content of schooling

Heterogeneous grouping

Cooperative learning

High expectations for all

Responsiveness to student diversity

Emphasis on active learning

Essential curriculum

Authentic assessment

Technology as a tool

Time as a learning resource

Diverse pedagogy

Chapter 7: Organizational Structures

10 Concepts Helpful in Restructuring the Content of Schooling


The principalship vision to action

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Chapter 8 the principal as decision maker

Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker

Standard 3: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by managing the organization, operations, and resources in a way that promotes a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment.


The nature of decision making

Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker

The Nature of Decision Making


The decision making process

Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker

The Decision Making Process

Identifying the problem

Generating alternatives

Recycle process as necessary

Evaluating alternatives

Choosing an alternative

Implementing the decision

Evaluating decision effectiveness


The rational decision maker

Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker

The Rational Decision Maker

  • What is rational decision making?

    • Problem is clear

    • Single goal is to be achieved

    • All alternatives and consequences are known

    • Preferences are clear

    • Preferences are constant and stable

    • No time or cost constraints

    • Final choice will maximize economic payoff

Do these assumptions seem applicable to most school organizations you are aware of? Rationality seems limited, so…


Limits to rationality

Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker

Limits to Rationality

  • Bounded Rationality:

    • Decisions based on incomplete comprehension of the problem

    • Decision makers will not succeed in generating all possible solutions

    • Alternatives are evaluated incompletely

    • Ultimate decision must be based on criterion other than maximization

  • Consider: Satisfying, Heuristics, Primacy/Recency Effect, Bolstering the Alternative, Intuition, Incrementalizing, the Garbage-Can Model

    • How can these processes compensate for the limits to rationality and allow a principal to make effective decisions?


Shared decision making

Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker

Shared Decision Making

  • Often committees, teams, councils, etc. must make decisions too. In these instances, an understanding of the shared decision making process is necessary.

  • To help involve teachers in the process, consider Huddleston, Claspell, and Killion’s method:

    • Readiness: prepare for shared decision making

    • Experimentation: build comfort in the decision making process

    • Refinement: share the decision making process

    • Institutionalization: shared decision making becomes norm

  • This process is not flawless. What are the advantages and disadvantages to shared decision making?


Advantages and disadvantages to shared decision making

Greater sum total knowledge

Greater number of approaches to the problem

Greater number of alternatives

Increased acceptance of a decision

Better comprehension of a problem and decision

Social pressures toward conformity

Individual domination

Conflicting secondary goals

Undesirable compromises

Ambiguous responsibility

More time needed

Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker

Advantages and Disadvantages to Shared Decision Making

Obviously, a principal needs to carefully consider if the shared decision making process is appropriate for any given situation. Read Williams’s list of skills needed for effective site-based decision making. Do these tips seem “do-able”? Now read through the model provided in the text. While seemingly esoteric, what are the practical applications and advantages to this method?


Decision making pattern choice

Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker

Decision Making – Pattern Choice

  • An alternative model to shared decision making, this approach focuses on a continuum of leadership from boss-centered to subordinate-centered

  • Review Figure 8-4 for a more detailed look at this approach

  • The principal must consider the forces in the leader, forces in the group members, forces in the situation, and long-run goals and strategy…


Decision making pattern choice cont d

Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker

Decision Making – Pattern Choice (Cont’d)

  • Forces in the situation that create pressure:

    • The problem

    • Time constraints

  • Long-run goals and strategy to consider:

    • Raising level of motivation

    • Improving quality of decisions

    • Developing teamwork and morale

    • Furthering individual development

    • Increasing readiness to accept change

  • Forces in the leader that determine which of the patterns to choose from:

    • Value system

    • Confidence in group members

    • Leadership inclinations

    • Feelings of security in uncertain situation

  • Forces in the group members that allow for greater freedom:

    • High need for independence

    • Readiness to assume responsibility

    • High tolerance for ambiguity

    • Interested in problem

    • Understand goals

    • Have necessary knowledge

    • Expect to share in process

There is no formula for perfect decision making. An effective principal must consider the forces in a given situation and assess which should influence him or her in a given situation.


The synergistic decision making approach

Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker

The Synergistic Decision Making Approach

  • Listening

    • Active listening with respect, consideration, and no judgment

  • Responding

    • Paraphrase; be respectful; assume sincerity; avoid pre-judgment

  • Reinforcing

    • Build on previous remarks to encourage a free, non-competitive, and diverse discussion

  • Clarifying

    • When confusion arises, phrase neutral questions, avoid condescension, avoid impatience, and do not assume you have the answer

Do you think teachers would be receptive to this process? Why or why not?


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Chapter 9 developing effective communication

Chapter 9:Developing Effective Communication

Standard 3: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by managing the organization, operations, and resources in a way that promotes a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment.


The communication process

Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication

Medium

Encode

Sender

Decode

Decode

Receiver

Encode

Message

Noise

Feedback

The Communication Process

  • Communication = the process of transmitting information from one person to another

  • Read the tips in the text on planning a successful communication process. What have been the positive traits of past communication processes you have been involved in? Negative traits?


Organizational communication

Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication

Organizational Communication

The following slides will take a closer look at different categories of communication:

Downward

Upward

Horizontal

Formal Communication Networks

Informal Communication Networks


Downward communication

Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication

Downward Communication

  • Information transmits from higher to lower levels

  • Purposes of downward communication

    • Implement goals and strategies

    • Job instruction and rationale

    • Procedures and practices

    • Performance feedback

    • Socialization

What situations warrant downward communication? Which situations would be inappropriate?


Upward communication

Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication

Upward Communication

  • Information transmits from lower to higher levels

  • Types of information in upward communication

    • Problems and expectations

    • Suggestions for improvement

    • Performance reports

    • Grievances and disputes

    • Financial and accounting information

Read through the barriers to effective upward communication and the tips to improve it. What other barriers have you encountered in upward communication? What could a principal have done to overcome those barriers?


Horizontal communication

Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication

Horizontal Communication

  • Information transmits laterally or diagonally across lines of formal chain of command; essential for increasing coordination

  • Categories of horizontal communication

    • Intradepartmental problem solving

    • Interdepartmental coordination

    • Staff advice to line departments


Communication networks

Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication

Communication Networks

  • The three previous communication patterns can combine to form five common networks

    • Chain: line authority relationships

    • Y: two or more interacting members report to a single supervisor

    • Wheel: several non-interacting members report to a single supervisor

    • Circle: members interact with adjoining members, but not others

    • All-Channel: members interact with adjoining members and all others

What are the advantages and disadvantages to each of these communication networks?

  • Informal network: The grapevine flows in all directions and is not fixed by any formal organizational chart


Managing communication barriers

Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication

Managing Communication: Barriers

  • Process barriers: blocked communication with sender, encoding, medium, decoding, receiver, or feedback

  • Physical barriers: concrete and real factors that block communication

  • Semantic barriers: variations and misunderstandings of connotations

  • Psychosocial barriers: factors such as fields of experience, filtering, and psychological distance that inhibit effective communication

How can you, as a principal, work to overcome these barriers? What has been the cause of communication breakdowns you have experienced in the past? How does your experience compare with the list of factors listed in the text?


Improving communication effectiveness

Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication

Improving Communication Effectiveness

  • All members of the communication process are responsible for improving communication

    • What can a sender (a principal) do to improve communication with various stakeholders? Consider the Ten Commandments listed in the text.

    • What can receivers do to improve communication? Again, consider the ten suggestions in the text.

    • What is active listening?

    • What can one do to improve giving responsive feedback?

    • What types of non-verbal communication should one be aware of?

Do the suggestions given in the text seem practical? Select at least one strategy posited from the questions posed above and explain how you would use it to improve your own communication. Then, go do it!


The principalship vision to action

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Chapter 10 the principal and change

Chapter 10:The Principal and Change

Standard 3: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by managing the organization, operations, and resources in a way that promotes a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment.


The nature of organizational change

Chapter 10: The Principal and Change

The Nature of Organizational Change

  • While most systems tend toward the status quo, principals must anticipate and direct change positively

    • External forces for change: the marketplace, laws and regulations, technology, labor markets, economic changes…what else?

    • Internal forces for change: problems with processes or people…such as?

      And yet, there is often strong resistance to change…


Why is change resisted

Chapter 10: The Principal and Change

Why Is Change Resisted?

  • Uncertainty

  • Concern over personal loss

  • Group resistance

  • Dependence

  • Trust

  • Awareness of weaknesses

Why have you resisted change in the past?

What can a principal do to overcome this resistance?


Overcoming resistance to change

Chapter 10: The Principal and Change

Overcoming Resistance to Change

  • Some strategies:

    • Education and communication

    • Participation and involvement

    • Facilitation and support

    • Negotiation and agreement

    • Manipulation and cooptation

    • Explicit and implicit coercion

Which of these strategies do you think would be most effective? Why? In what types of situations would you use each? What other strategies can you think of?


Getting reform right what works and what doesn t

Chapter 10: The Principal and Change

Getting Reform Right: What Works and What Doesn’t

  • Current research suggests the following:

    • Change is learning

    • Change is a journey, not a blueprint

    • Problems are our friends

    • Change is resource-hungry

    • Change requires the power to manage it

    • Change is systematic

    • All large-scale change is implemented locally


Managing change

Chapter 10: The Principal and Change

Managing Change

  • Types of change agents:

    • Outside pressure type

    • People-change-technology type

    • Analysis-for-the-top type

    • Organization-development type

  • Change agent roles:

    • Consulting

    • Training

    • Research

What are some “real-world” examples of each of these types?

When would a principal need to play each of these roles?


Managing change cont d

Chapter 10: The Principal and Change

Managing Change (cont’d)

  • Common characteristics of effective change

    • Hemophily

    • Empathy

    • Linkage

    • Proximity

    • Structuring

    • Capacity

    • Openness

    • Reward

    • Energy

    • Synergy

Why are these desired characteristics of a change agent?


The change process

Chapter 10: The Principal and Change

The Change Process

  • Phase 1: Pressure and arousal

  • Phase 2: Intervention and reorientation

  • Phase 3: Diagnosis and recognition

  • Phase 4: Invention and commitment

  • Phase 5: Experimentation and search

  • Phase 6: Reinforcement and acceptance

Note that this model focuses on the role of the change agent (i.e. the principal). What would a principal actually be doing in each of these phases?


Promoting successful school change

Chapter 10: The Principal and Change

Promoting Successful School Change

  • Build a vision

  • Create a positive climate

  • Mobilize

  • Engage community support

  • Train

  • Provide resources

  • Remove barriers

Please note that the previous and subsequent chapters deal with each of these strategies.


Change strategies

Chapter 10: The Principal and Change

Change Strategies

  • Process Strategies

    • Survey feedback

    • Team building

    • Process consultation

    • Quality of work life

  • Structural Strategies

    • Goal setting

    • Job redesign

    • Quality circles

    • Strategic planning


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Chapter 11 budgeting and school facilities

Chapter 11:Budgeting and School Facilities

Standard 3: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by managing the organization, operations, and resources in a way that promotes a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment.


Basic terms to know

Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities

Basic Terms to Know

  • Expenditures

  • Current Expenses

  • Capital Outlay

  • Debt Service

  • Revenue

  • Fiscally Independent vs. Fiscally Dependent Districts

  • Fiscal Neutrality Standard


The budgeting process

Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities

The Budgeting Process

Board of Education

Superintendent

CFO

AS

AS

AS

Budget Committee

Division Head: Elementary

Division Head: Secondary

Elementary Building Principal

Secondary Building Principal


Financial controls

Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities

Financial Controls

  • What are the purposes of financial controls?

    • Assist principals in acquiring, allocating, and evaluating the use of financial resources

    • Allow districts to pay short- and long-term debts

    • Protect districts from theft, fraud, etc.

  • Two types: internal control and financial audits


Internal control

Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities

Internal Control

  • The policies and procedures used by a district to safeguard assets and verify accounting data

  • Effective internal control should include…

    • Clear, formal organization

    • Accounts for each administrative unit

    • Handling and record keeping of assets should not be done by the same employee

    • No one person has control over all phases of any given transaction

    • No redundant work, but employees should check work


Financial audits

Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities

Financial Audits

  • Independent appraisal of district’s accounting, financial, and operational systems

  • Two types…

    • External: conducted by experts outside of the district to verify district accuracy

    • Internal: conducted by district employees to examine the accuracy of financial reports

What would be the various advantages and disadvantages to external and internal audits?


Zero base budgeting

Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities

Zero-Base Budgeting

  • A district starts the budgeting process at zero every year

  • Not just adjustments to last year’s budget; EVERY expenditure must be justified

  • Three steps:

    • Identify Decision Units

    • Develop Decision Packages

    • Rank the Decision Packages

AN ALTERNATIVE BUDGETING SYSTEM…

What parts of a district’s organization would be best served by zero-based budget and why?


Planning programming budgeting systems

Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities

Planning-Programming-Budgeting Systems

  • Similar to ZBB, but not all programs need be justified

  • The basic steps:

    • Specify goals

    • Search for relevant alternatives

    • Measure the costs of the programs for several years

    • Evaluate the output of each program

The textbook states that “PPBS has not been the great tool in practice that its logic would imply.” Why might this be?


School facilities management

Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities

School Facilities Management

  • Principals in the 21st century must be aware of:

    • Rising school infrastructure costs

    • New school constructs costs

    • Environmental hazards inherent with aging facilities


School infrastructure costs

Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities

School Infrastructure Costs

  • Infrastructure = the physical facilities that make up a school building (plumbing, heating, electrical, sewer, etc.)

  • Which areas do you think would have the schools in the best/worst condition?

  • How much of one’s budget should be allocated to these costs?

    • Experts say 5%, but most schools put aside only 3%

Why are schools falling apart and why do repairs cost so much?


The principalship vision to action

Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities

  • Age of facilities

  • Energy prices

  • Weather conditions

  • Density and vandalism

  • Newer buildings

  • “A ticking time bomb”: most educators and the public simply do not pay attention to the ailing infrastructure of America’s schools


Financing school construction

Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities

Financing School Construction

  • With ever increasing public school enrollments, building new schools will become a large factor in many districts throughout the country. According to the text, what are some unique challenges that building new schools brings about? How are schools built today fundamentally different from schools built decades ago?


Environmental hazards

Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities

Environmental Hazards

  • Every principal should be aware of:

    • Asbestos

    • Radon gas

    • School lead

    • Indoor air quality

    • Electromagnetic fields

What dangers do each of these hazards present and how might a principal safely handle each?


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Chapter 12 creating safe schools

Chapter 12:Creating Safe Schools

Standard 3: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by managing the organization, operations, and resources in a way that promotes a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment.


School violence and drug use

Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools

School Violence and Drug Use

  • What does the research say?

    • Read the bulleted points from the selected studies presented in the text.

    • Do these findings surprise you? Why/why not?

    • Brainstorm some action plans and strategies that a principal could implement to address the trends identified in these studies.


An action plan 6 strategies for success

Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools

An Action Plan: 6 Strategies for Success

  • Predict School Violence

  • Prevent School Violence

  • Focus Resources on Schools

  • Strengthen the System

  • Develop a Crisis Management Plan

  • Create an Orderly Climate for Learning

These strategies are, of course, not meant to be used in isolation of one another; a combination of all or some of the strategies, depending on your school climate, will surely help you create a safe school.


Strategy 1 predict school violence

Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools

Strategy #1: Predict School Violence

  • Collect and analyze data

  • Identify problem students and provide support

  • Identify problem teachers and provide support and training


The principalship vision to action

Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools

Strategy #2: Prevent School Violence

  • Toughen Weapons Laws: What specific policies should a principal advocate in order to achieve this?

  • Deal with Violent Students: What specific strategies should a principal use?


The principalship vision to action

Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools

Strategy #3: Focus Resources on Schools

  • Fund the Basic Education Program

  • Teach Violence Prevention

  • Establish Task Forces

How could a principal implement this strategy considering the other financial demands a school faces?


The principalship vision to action

Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools

Strategy #4: Strengthen the System

  • Improve the Juvenile Code

  • Create a State Center for the Prevention of School Violence

How, realistically, can a principal affect these systems that are seemingly out of their jurisdiction?


The principalship vision to action

Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools

Strategy #5: Develop a Crisis Management Plan

  • Form a School-wide Crisis Management Team

  • Conduct an Ongoing, School-wide Safety Audit

  • Develop Policies and Procedures for Various Emergencies

  • Conduct Safety Drills

  • Develop a School-wide Discipline Plan

  • Provide a Means for Students to Communicate Information to Staff

  • Teach Students Alternatives to Violence

  • Evaluate Administrative Practices of the School

  • Use Resources to Identify Students “At-Risk” for Violent Behavior

How could you best communicate the need to follow these steps to a resistant staff?


The principalship vision to action

Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools

Strategy #6: Create an Orderly Climate for Learning

  • Establish and Emphasize Goals

  • Establish Rules and Procedures

  • Improve Teacher-Student Relations in the Classroom

What specific rules and procedures would be most helpful in creating a safe school?

What specific strategies can a principal and/or teacher use to improve teacher-student relations?


Consider

Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools

Consider…

  • What are the pros and cons of each of the six previous strategies?

  • Beside creating safer schools, what are the other positive outcomes of these strategies?

  • Which of the strategies (or combination of strategies) would you be most likely to implement in your school and why?

  • Beyond these six strategies, what else can principals do to ensure that their school is a safe one?


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Chapter 13 hu man resource management

Chapter 13:Human Resource Management

Standard 3: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by managing the organization, operations, and resources in a way that promotes a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment.


The human resource management process

Chapter 13: Human Resource Management

Recruitment

Selection

Staff Development

Performance Appraisal

The Human Resource Management Process

Legal Constraints

Union Demands


Recruitment of staff

Chapter 13: Human Resource Management

Recruitment of Staff

  • Before recruitment can commence, principals should:

    • Analyze the job requirements: refer to job descriptions and job specifications

    • Know and understand legal constraints involved in recruitment: consult Table 13-1

    • Cultivate the sources of potential employees: promotion within a district, college placement offices, advertisements, referrals, job fairs, teacher recruitment consortiums


Selection of staff

Chapter 13: Human Resource Management

Selection of Staff

Typical steps in staff selection:

  • Preliminary screening of credentials

  • Preliminary interview

  • Testing

  • Reference Checks

  • In-depth interview

  • Physical examination

  • Hiring decision

The most complications usually arise in the interview process…


The interview process

Chapter 13: Human Resource Management

The Interview Process

  • Typical problems:

    • Interviewer is unfamiliar with the job

    • Interviewers make premature decision based on first impressions

    • Interviewers impose personal biases on the applicants

How to improve the process


A better interview process will include

Chapter 13: Human Resource Management

A Better Interview Process Will Include…

  • Use of a structured interview format

  • Explicitly trained interviewers

  • The interview as ONE aspect of the selection process

  • Candidates that are given interviews only after references are checked

  • Candidates whose files are screened for completeness

  • Sufficient time for each interview

  • Mailing candidates two or three questions prior to interview

  • Name cards placed in front of each interviewer

  • An evaluation form regarding the interview experience given to each candidate

Why would these tips aid in the selection process? Can you think of any other useful suggestions?


Do ask about

Why applicant wants to teach at school/district

What can applicant bring to the school that is uniquely theirs

Why type of grading criteria is used

How applicant keeps current in the field

What has applicant done to develop professionally

What is applicant’s view of the relationship between faculty and administration

Chapter 13: Human Resource Management

DO ASK ABOUT…

What are some other insightful and helpful interview questions that you can think of?


Do not ask about

Chapter 13: Human Resource Management

DO NOT ASK ABOUT…

  • Ancestry, nation of origin, place of birth, original language, etc.

  • How applicant learned a foreign language

  • Membership in clubs that would indicate race, color, sex, etc.

  • Names and addresses of relatives not working for the district

  • How long applicant intends to work

  • Age

  • Financial condition

  • Prior wage garnishments

  • Home ownership

  • Disabilities

  • Marital status

  • Where spouse works

  • Pregnancy or medical history

  • Ages of children

  • Military experience

  • Religious observance


Staff development

Chapter 13: Human Resource Management

Staff Development

  • Assess Staff Development Needs: Review the three methods listed in the text. What are the benefits to these methods?

  • Set Staff Development Goals: Why is an understanding of the three categories of objectives necessary for a principal seeking to improve staff development?

  • Select Staff Development Methods: Examine the table that identifies widely used methods. Which of these (or combination thereof) do you think would be most effective and why?


Staff development cont d

Chapter 13: Human Resource Management

Staff Development (cont’d)

  • Evaluate Staff Development Program: Why are the questions relating to staff development outcomes important to ask?

  • Induct Beginning Teachers: Recall how it felt when you first became a teacher. What information do you wish you had been given? What specific strategies can principals use to aid beginning teachers?

  • Improve Support for Beginning Teachers: Which of the recommendations listed to help principals work with beginning teachers could you most easily implement at your school? Can you think of any other specific strategies that would help achieve similar results?


Staff performance appraisal

Chapter 13: Human Resource Management

Staff Performance Appraisal

  • Appraisal Techniques

    • Nonjudgmental methods

    • Judgmental methods

  • Common Rating Errors

    • Too strict or lenient

    • Central tendency

    • Single dimension

    • Halo effect

    • Recency of events

    • Personal bias and first impressions


Modern appraisal techniques

Chapter 13: Human Resource Management

Modern Appraisal Techniques

  • Clinical Supervision:

    • Pre-observation conference

    • Observation

    • Analysis and strategy

    • Supervision conference

    • Post-conference

  • Goal Setting

    • Supervisor and teacher meet to determine goals

    • Supervisor and teacher meet to appraise performance in terms of goals set

As a teacher, which appraisal techniques did/do you prefer? Why? As a principal, which do you think you will employ?


Union management relations

Chapter 13: Human Resource Management

Union-Management Relations

  • Why must a principal work hard to create and maintain positive union-management relations?

  • The Collective Bargaining Process

    • Bargaining team selection

    • Negotiations

    • If negotiations are successful  ratification

    • If negotiations are not successful  impasse

      • Mediation

      • Fact Finding

      • Arbitration


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Chapter 14 community relations

Chapter 14:Community Relations

Standard 4: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by collaborating with families and other community members, responding to diverse community interests and needs, and mobilizing community resources.


The principal as a boundary spanner

Chapter 14: Community Relations

The Principal as a “Boundary Spanner”

  • A principal should be a bridge between the school and external constituencies


Leading community efforts during catastrophe

Chapter 14: Community Relations

Leading Community Efforts during Catastrophe

  • Schools become a lifeline. Why is this?

  • What a principal can do:

    • Establish means of communication

    • Assess damage quickly and make accommodations

    • Prioritize needs and establish authority to make decisions

    • Address emotional and survival needs of staff and students

    • Arrange for training and support for mental health caregivers (prior to a catastrophe)

    • Provide feedback to media

    • Identify and secure available resources

    • After a catastrophe, encourage creative lesson planning that uses lessons learned


Leading school family and community involvement

Chapter 14: Community Relations

Leading School, Family, and Community Involvement

  • Community = just parents

  • What members of any given community might be most helpful to a school?

  • Why is it important that a principal learn to serve as a leader of this community and not just the school?


Leading school family and community involvement cont d

Epstein’s types of involvement:

Parenting

Communicating

Volunteering

Learning at home

Decision making

Collaboration with community

Comprehensive partnerships

Communication avenues:

Orientation meetings

Newsletters

School handbook

Programs for families

Suggestion box

Home visits

Conferences

Journals

Personal notes

Phone calls

Chapter 14: Community Relations

Leading School, Family, and Community Involvement (cont’d)

Research demonstrates that parental involvement is a key factor in students’ academic achievement, self-confidence, and attitude toward school. What can a principal do to encourage and promote parental involvement, especially for minority groups?

What are the advantages and disadvantages to each of these avenues?


School community relations

Chapter 14: Community Relations

School-Community Relations

“Educational public relations is a planned and systematic management function to help improve the programs and services of an educational organization. It relies on a comprehensive two-way communication process…[to] assist in interpreting public attitudes, identify and help shape policies and procedures in the public interest, and carry on involvement and information activities that earn public understanding and support.”

The National School Public Relations Association


School community relations cont d

Anticipate problems

Handle all school publications

Write news releases

Stay connected to budget process

Develop communication plan

Conduct formal and informal research to gauge public opinion

Promote school’s strengths

Publicize staff and student achievement

Answer request for information

Provide PR training for staff

Serve as liaison to community groups

Chapter 14: Community Relations

School-Community Relations (cont’d)

To develop two-way communication and collaboration within a community, the NPSRA suggests:

What else can a principal do to create strong community relations?


Public relations

Chapter 14: Community Relations

Public Relations

  • Strong PR programs follow these basic steps:

    • Research

    • Action plan

    • Communicate

    • Evaluate

      Read “A Young Principal’s Story.” Identify and evaluate the principal’s use of this process. Compare this principal’s actions with those of the principal in “A Seasoned Principal’s Story.”


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Chapter 15 the principal and ethics

Chapter 15:The Principal and Ethics

Standard 5: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by acting with integrity, fairly, and in an ethical manner.


What is an ethical principal

Chapter 15: The Principal and Ethics

What Is an Ethical Principal?

  • “One who, in the face of adversity, ambiguity, and challenge, will reflect on what is right by some set standard or code and will act in a rational and caring manner to resolve problems and conduct business.”

  • Do you agree with the text’s definition(s) of an ethical principal? What are some of the obstacles that might prevent a principal from behaving ethically? How might you overcome those obstacles?


Philosophical concepts of ethics

Rights

Freedom

Responsibility and Authority

Duty

Justice

Equity

Caring

Character, Commitment, and Formality

Conflict of Interest

Loyalty

Prudence

Critique

Profession

Moral Imperative

Chapter 15: The Principal and Ethics

Philosophical Concepts of Ethics

Considering each

concept individually,

why must a principal

be aware of each

in order to behave ethically?


Ethical behavior in schools

Chapter 15: The Principal and Ethics

Ethical Behavior in Schools

  • Promoting Ethical Behavior in Athletic Programs

    • Why is this an issue? Has it become more of an issue in recent years? Why do you think this is?

    • Consider:

      • Athletes must be considered ends and not means

      • Competition must be fair

      • Participation, leadership, resources, and rewards must be based on achievement

      • Activity must be safe for participants

How do these principles sustain traditional values? What other principles should an administrator be mindful of concerning athletics?


Ethical behavior in schools promoting ethical behavior through character education

Education Is an Inescapable Moral Enterprise

Parents Are Primary Moral Educators of Children

Character Education Develops Virtues

Teachers, Principals, and Staff Are Central to Character Education

Schools Are Communities of Virtue

Character Education Goes beyond Academic Curriculum

Character Creation Is an Essential and Demanding Life Task

Chapter 15: The Principal and Ethics

Ethical Behavior in Schools: Promoting Ethical Behavior through Character Education

What are the benefits to character education and how can these 7 principles help you develop a character education program? Consider how you would work with your superintendent, school board, and other administrators.


National and state codes of ethics for principals

Chapter 15: The Principal and Ethics

National and State Codes of Ethics for Principals

  • Rationale for a Code of Ethics

    • Provide guidelines for conduct

    • Establish accountability and protect students

    • Serve as catalyst for job improvement

How do the guidelines and self-assessment tools supplied by these national agencies support the rationale for a code of ethics?

  • National Associations (click for website)

    • American Association of School Administrators

    • National Association of Elementary School Principals and the National Association of Secondary School Principals

    • National Education Association


National and state codes of ethics for principals cont d

Chapter 15: The Principal and Ethics

National and State Codes of Ethics for Principals (cont’d)

  • Review the sample state codes in the text.

  • How do these codes support the concepts and principles discussed earlier in the chapter?

  • Does your state supply a Code of Ethics for Educators? How does it help to ensure that educators and administrators behave in an ethical manner? Is there anything missing for your state’s code that you think would be helpful?


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Chapter 16 political and policy context

Chapter 16:Political and Policy Context

Standard 6: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by understanding, responding to, and influencing the larger political, social, economic, legal, and cultural context.


Policy a historical perspective

As far as policy is concerned, what is the importance of the following terms and events?

Brown vs. Board of Education

Differentiated curriculum

Equity

Socio-economically disadvantaged

Public Law 94-142

Accountability

Data-driven decision making

English Language Learner

Chapter 16: Political and Policy Context

Policy: A Historical Perspective


Policy

Chapter 16: Political and Policy Context

Policy

  • Read the various definitions of policy in the text. What are the commonalities in these definitions? What is policy?

  • Levels of relationship to policy

    • Orientation

    • Degree

    • Resources

    • Activity

    • Autonomy

    • Societal Values

    • Instructional Values

    • Rationale

    • Power Relationships


Policy theory

Chapter 16: Political and Policy Context

Policy Theory

  • Systems Theory

  • Neo-pluralist Advocacy Coalition and Interest Group Theories

  • Neo-institutional Theory

  • Critical Theory

  • Feminist Theory

  • Postmodernism

  • Ideological Theories

What different insights regarding policy can be gleaned from each of the mentioned theories? Why is it important for a principal to have a working knowledge of these theories? What are the practical applications of these theories?


Dimensions of policy

Chapter 16: Political and Policy Context

Dimensions of Policy

  • Normative dimension

  • Structural dimension

  • Constituentive dimension

  • Technical dimension

    Take a close look at Figure 16-2 to understand how these dimension interact to create policy


Politics

Chapter 16: Political and Policy Context

Politics

  • What is your definition of politics?

  • How does your definition compare to those given the text?

  • Which of Apple’s groups would you place yourself in? The majority of teachers and staff at your school? The majority of the stakeholders in your community? Why is it important to identify these groups?

  • Why must a principal be constantly aware of the politics of education?


Types of educational politics

Chapter 16: Political and Policy Context

Types of Educational Politics

  • Pluralist Maintenance Politics

  • Adversarial Politics

  • Democratic Politics

  • Unitary Politics

  • Consolidated Principal Power

The text states that “there are five perspectives on school politics that might be beneficial to principals to understand within their own political, school contexts.” What are the similarities and differences between these perspectives and how can an understanding of them be beneficial to a principal?


Politics working with the superintendent and other external forces

Chapter 16: Political and Policy Context

Politics: Working with the Superintendent and Other External Forces

  • What is Davis’s take on the politics of principal evaluations? Why would this important opportunity for self-reflection cause tension between a principal and superintendent?

  • Read the eight suggestions for working within political systems and with superintendents. Do you find these tips useful? Why/why not? Can you think of any other suggestions for working with the various political components of a district to ensure the quality education of all students?


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Chapter 17 legal issues

Chapter 17:Legal Issues

Standard 6: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by understanding, responding to, and influencing the larger political, social, economic, legal, and cultural context.


Legal basis for public education

Chapter 17: Legal Issues

Legal Basis for Public Education

  • Obviously, any administrator and educator needs to ensure that all of their actions are lawful. The following slides will briefly outline the various sources of educational law.


Sources of law federal

Chapter 17: Legal Issues

Sources of Law: Federal

  • The United States Constitution

    • Education is NOT specifically mentioned in the Constitution, so how can the federal government regulate it?

  • Federal Statutes

    • Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965

    • No Child Left Behind Act of 2002

    • Civil Rights Acts of 1964 & 1991

  • Federal Administrative Agencies

    • Department of Education

    • Office of Civil Rights

    • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

    • Environmental Protection Agency

  • Case Law

    • What power does the Supreme Court have concerning education?


Sources of law state

Chapter 17: Legal Issues

Sources of Law: State

  • State Constitutions

  • State Statutes

  • State Administrative Agencies

  • Case Law

  • Local Level (school districts and service centers)

What is the purpose and jurisdiction of each of the above sources for state education law?


Sources of law judicial

Chapter 17: Legal Issues

Sources of Law: Judicial

  • State Courts

  • Federal Courts

State Supreme Court

U.S. Supreme Court

Intermediate Appellate Courts

U.S. Circuit Courts (13)

Courts of General Jurisdiction

(Superior and Circuit Courts)

U.S. District Courts (89)

Courts of Limited Jurisdiction (Municipal and Small Claims)


Schools and the state

Chapter 17: Legal Issues

Schools and the State

The following are the most common and pervasive issues administrators face concerning state and local legal authority in education

  • Compulsory School Attendance

  • Residency Requirements

  • Church-State Relations

  • Prayer and Bible Reading

  • Silent Prayer

  • Prayer at Graduation and Extracurricular Activities

  • Equal Access Act

  • Released Time for Religious Instruction

  • State Aid to Private Schools

  • School Fees

  • Transportation

  • Textbooks, Courses, and Supplies

  • Extracurricular Activities


Schools and the state cont d

State’s control over curriculum:

School districts must offer curriculum prescribed by the legislature or law

Recent cases uphold district’s power to ban certain curriculum (but not for purely religious reasons)

State-mandated performance testing:

Strongly supported by NCLB

Most controversy centers around using tests as graduation requirements

Chapter 17: Legal Issues

Schools and the State (cont’d)

What can a principal do to minimize litigation in these matters?


Students and the law

Chapter 17: Legal Issues

Students and the Law

  • Can a student, legally, say whatever they want in a school? Why or why not? What is and is not protected by the First Amendment?

  • Can a student, legally, dress any way they see fit while in school? Why or why not? What are regulations concerning health and safety standards, gang-related dress, controversial slogans, and school uniforms?


Students and the law cont d

Chapter 17: Legal Issues

Students and the Law (cont’d)

  • Extracurricular Activities

    • Conditions may be attached to participation in extracurricular activities

  • Student Discipline

    • What are the stipulations for suspensions, disciplinary transfers, and expulsions?

    • 27 states ban corporeal punishment

    • Protection from unreasonable search and seizure must be balanced with the need to maintain a safe school environment


Students and the law cont d1

Chapter 17: Legal Issues

Students and the Law (cont’d)

  • Students with disabilities

    • As discussed in Chapter 6, a principal must be very aware of the laws, acts, and legislation concerning students with disabilities

    • The most significant act, IDEA, assures that students with disabilities 1) receive a free appropriate education, 2) are prepared for employment and independent living, 3) have their rights protected, and 4) receive appropriate services from the state


Teachers and the law

Chapter 17: Legal Issues

Teachers and the Law

  • Certification: What are the standards for certification in your state?

  • Contracts:

    • Offer and acceptance

    • Competent parties

    • Consideration

    • Legal subject matter

    • Proper form

  • Tenure:

    • Does your state provide tenure for teachers and other staff?

  • Dismissal:

    • Each state mandates proper procedure. What is your state’s procedure?


Teachers and the law sexual harassment

Chapter 17: Legal Issues

Teachers and the Law: Sexual Harassment

  • Litigated under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972

  • Includes

    • Sexual bribery

    • Sexual imposition

    • Gender harassment

    • Sexual coercion

    • Sexual behavior

Discourage with:

  • No-tolerance policy

  • Wide dissemination of policy

  • Easy complaint filing

  • Prompt and objective investigation

  • Appropriate remedial action


Teachers and the law discrimination

Chapter 17: Legal Issues

Teachers and the Law: Discrimination

Federal statutes prohibit discrimination based on:

  • Race

  • Gender

  • Disabilities

  • Age

  • Religion

  • Pregnancy


Teachers and the law collective bargaining

Chapter 17: Legal Issues

Teachers and the Law: Collective Bargaining

  • Constitution protects free association rights but does not guarantee collective bargaining

  • Bargaining issues to be aware of:

    • Management rights

    • Narrow grievance definition

    • No-strike provision

    • Zipper clause

    • Maintenance of standards

    • Just cause

    • Reduction in force

    • Wages and benefits


Teachers and the law collective bargaining cont d

Chapter 17: Legal Issues

Teachers and the Law: Collective Bargaining (cont’d)

  • The Bargaining Process

    • Negotiating team selected

    • Negotiations commence

    • In the event of an impasse:

      • Mediation

      • Fact finding

      • Arbitration

  • Bargaining Tactics:

    • Counterproposals

    • Tradeoffs

    • Caucus


Tort liability

Chapter 17: Legal Issues

Tort Liability

  • Tort = civil wrong (not contracts) for which a court can award damages

Defense against negligence:

  • Contributory negligence

  • Assumption of risk

  • Comparative negligence

  • Governmental immunity

To establish negligence:

  • Duty

  • Standard of care

  • Proximate cause

  • Injury


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