Case of the month april 2009
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Case of the Month April 2009. Contributed by Drs. Deborah Giusto and Shriram Jakate. Case of the Month – April 2009.

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Case of the Month April 2009

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Case of the month april 2009

Case of the Month April 2009

Contributed by Drs. Deborah Giusto and ShriramJakate


Case of the month april 20091

Case of the Month – April 2009

  • Patient is a 6 year old boy who presents with gastrointestinal bleeding and multiple, cutaneousprotuberant dark blue papules on the skin. Low power (Fig. 1) and high power (Fig. 2) views of his small bowel biopsy are provided below:


Case of the month april 20092

Case of the Month – April 2009

Fig. 1- Low power view of small bowel biopsy


Case of the month april 20093

Case of the Month – April 2009

Fig. 2- High power view of small bowel biopsy


Case of the month april 20094

Case of the Month – April 2009

Diagnosis: Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome

  • Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) is a rare vascular anomaly syndrome consisting of multifocal venous malformations (VM). The malformations are most prominent in the skin, soft tissues, and gastrointestinal (GI) tract, but can occur in any tissue. This association of “hemangiomas” of the skin and GI tract was first reported in 1860, and characterized by William Bean in 1958, giving rise to the name “Bean syndrome.” The cutaneous lesions of BRBNS are small, usually measuring less than 1–2 cm, and blue to purple in color. Bean was the first to describe the unique quality of these compressible cutaneous lesions that he called “blue rubber-bleb nevi.” A patient may have from several to hundreds of cutaneouslesions. Nonetheless, the visceral organ system most commonly affected is the GI tract and these lesions are more clinically relevant than the skin and soft tissue lesions. Vascular malformations may occur anywhere from oral to anal mucosa but predominantly occur in the small bowel.

  • Histopathologic examination of small bowel lesions reveals blood-filled ectatic vessels, lined by a single layer of endothelial cells, with surrounding thin connective tissue (Figures 1 and 2).

  • In contrast to the skin lesions, the GI lesions often bleed. They may spontaneously rupture causing acute hemorrhage and death. However, most bleeding from the GI tract is slow, minor, chronic, and occult, resulting in iron deficiency anemia from ongoing loss. A case of thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation has been reported in association with BRBNS. Other complications include intussusception, volvulus, and bowel infarction. These diagnoses should be considered in patients with BRBNS and abdominal pain.


Case of the month april 20095

Case of the Month – April 2009

References:

  • Odze R., Goldblum J. and Crawford J. Surgical Pathology of the GI tract, Liver, BiliaryTract and Pancreas. 2004. p.74.

  • McKee P. Pathology of the Skin. Second edition. Mosby-Wolfe, 1996, pp. 16.63.


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