HYDRAULIC FRACTURING
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HYDRAULIC FRACTURING. and Smart Water Management. Eli Gruber, President & CEO Ecologix Environmental Systems. ABOUT ECOLOGIX. About Ecologix. Ecologix designs and integrates water & wastewater treatment solutions for industries and municipalities. SERVICES PROVIDED TO OUR CLIENTS:

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and Smart Water Management

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And smart water management

HYDRAULIC FRACTURING

and Smart Water Management

Eli Gruber, President & CEO

Ecologix Environmental Systems


And smart water management

ABOUT ECOLOGIX

About Ecologix

Ecologix designs and integrates water & wastewater treatment solutions

for industries and municipalities

  • SERVICES PROVIDED TO OUR CLIENTS:

  • Treatability studies

  • Engineering

  • Design

  • Fabrication

  • Installation

  • Start-Up & Training

  • System Operation


And smart water management

WHO WE SERVE

About Ecologix

  • INDUSTRIES

  • Oil & Gas

  • Automotive

  • Food & Beverage

  • Mining

  • Municipalities

  • Pulp & Paper

  • Petrochemical

  • Utilities


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a little about

HYDRAULIC FRACTURING


And smart water management

U.S. DOMESTIC ENERGY BOOM

The Industry

  • US is #1 natural gas producer in the world

  • US oil production 9 million bbl/day, (almost 50% of daily domestic consumption)


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WATER USAGE IN FRACKING

The Industry

  • Avg. 60,000 – 120,000 bbl/well

  • Water sourced from aquifers, rivers, lakes

  • 30,000bbl flows back

  • 90% of water ends up in disposal wells


And smart water management

HOW FRACKING WORKS

The Industry


And smart water management

HOW FRACKING WORKS

The Industry


And smart water management

HOW FRACKING WORKS

The Industry

A mix of water, sand and chemicals including crosslinkers, breakers, friction reducers is injected under high pressure to fracture the rock

Thousands of vertical joints in rock strata connect, allowing drilling fluids to seep toward the surface


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HOW FRACKING WORKS

The Industry


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TWO SIDES OF THE ISSUE

Top Concerns

SURFACE DISCHARGE

Treat to municipal standards

DIRECT REUSE FOR FRACKING

Treated water used solely for drilling, fracturing operations

This presentation is about this side of the fence


And smart water management

TOP THREE ENVIRONMENTAL

CONCERNS with fracking


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1: FRESH WATER RESOURCES

Top Concerns

  • FACTS

  • One well requires between 3 – 5 million gallons of water

  • Water sourced from rivers, lakes, aquifers

  • IMPLICATIONS

  • Over-withdrawal threatens longevity of water sources

  • Arid regions face water shortages


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2: ROAD WEAR, NOISE, TRAFFIC

Top Concerns

  • FACTS

  • One truck carries 130bbl

  • Approx. 600 one-way truck trips per well for fresh water delivery

  • Additional 175 one-way trips to dispose of flowback water

  • 400+ trips for produced water disposal

  • IMPLICATIONS

  • Noise, pollution, road wear

  • 2012, Pennsylvania estimated $265 million on road repairs in the Marcellus


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3: WASTEWATER DISPOSAL

Top Concerns

  • FACTS

  • 144,000 Class II wells in United States

  • Disposing of 730 billion gallons of brine per year

  • IMPLICATIONS

  • Environmentalist concern with ground tremors


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managing water to

RESOLVE THE CONCERNS


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SURVEY SAYS

Water Management

72% OF INDUSTRY EXPERTS SAY WATER & WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT IS THEIR TOP CONCERN WITH FRACKING

It seems like solving this issue is a good place to start


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A COMMON MISCONCEPTION

Water Management

A COMMON MISCONCEPTION IS THAT SALTY WATER DOESN’T MIX WELL WITH FRAC CHEMICALS


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MISCONCEPTIONS DEBUNKED

Water Management

  • Society of Petroleum Engineers study (SPE 163824, February 2013) shows:

  • TDS up to 285,000 mg/L can be used to make frac fluid

  • Fluid consisted of:

    • CMHPG Gum (Guar Gum)

    • Zirconium-based Crosslinker

    • Sodium Chlorite Breaker

    • Breaker Catalyst

    • Non-emulsified Surfactant


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HALLIBURTON STUDY

  • In 2012, Halliburton experimented using produced water with TDS levels of up to 285,000ppm, here are the results:

  • 100% success rate over 59 wells and 260 stages

  • No production decrease vs. fresh water

  • Avg. savings per well $70K-$100K, mostly due to reduced truck movements

  • The Bottom Line:

  • TDS Removal – why pay to remove TDS when you can adjust fluid composition at a fraction of the cost?

  • TSS Removal – Proppant permeability increases by 20% when TSS is removed


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PRODUCED WATER ANALYSIS


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VISUAL COMPARISON

TDS still

273,000mg/L

Raw Produced Water

Treated Produced Water


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FLUID COMPOSITION

Water Management

Data Source:

http://www.all-llc.com/publicdownloads/ALLFayettevilleFracFINAL.pdf


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CARRIER CHEMICALS (0.49%)

Water Management

  • Total additives amount to 4,900ppm

  • Gelling agents, friction reducers, and crosslinkers amount to 735ppm

  • Even low levels of TSS (colloidal solids) will cause unwanted friction, fouling, and loss of well productivity


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TSS REDUCES PERMEABILITY

Water Management

  • Fracture permeability suffers with presence of TSS

image source: Halliburton


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TSS IMPEDES WELL PRODUCTIVITY

Water Management

  • Treated produced water maintains about 20% more permeability

data source: Halliburton


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FRESH WATER CAUSES CLAY SWELLING

Water Management

  • Formations with smectite clays swellwhen fresh water is introduced

  • Swelling clay can result in a 2-40% reduction in well productivity

  • “In heavy oil recovery, incompatible fluids are often injected into hydrocarbon reservoirs, which cause clay swelling and thus impair the formation permeability”1

1. Krueger, R.F. (1986): An Overview of Formation Damage and Well Productivity in Oilfield Operation, Journal of Petroleum Technology, Vol. 38, pp. 131–152.


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WELL PRODUCTIVITY

Business Case

  • In a shale formation with some content of clay, assume a 2% reduction in productivity due to clay swelling

  • A well that produces $10 million a year would lose $200,000

  • How about a 10% or 25% reduction due to clay swelling? That’s millions of dollars stuck in the well!

Is the loss in revenues worth the risk?


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TREATING WATER FOR REUSE


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TREATMENT PROCESS

Treat for Reuse

Solids

Screening

Oil

Recovery

Water

Conditioning

  • Enhance

  • Stratification

  • Reduce

  • Surface Tension

  • Oxidation

Disinfection/ Oxidation

Chemical

Precipitation

Physical

Separation

Polishing/ Filtration

  • Colloidal Solids

  • Sulfates/Sulfides

  • Dissolved Metals


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CHEMICAL TREATMENT

CoagulationNeutralizes negatively charged particles causing them to agglomerate

FlocculationForms bridges between the coagulated particles, generating large solids that can settle or float

Separationremoving formed sludge from the water, through either settlement or flotation

Coagulated water turns orange when using

Iron-based chemistry

Flocculated

Coagulated

Separated

Raw


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PHYSICAL SEPARATION

  • DISSOLVED AIR FLOTATION (DAF)

  • Micro-bubbles attach to sludge and float

  • Skimmer removes sludge from water

  • Clean water flows out of system


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INTEGRATED TREATMENT SYSTEM

ITS - 900

900gpm (31,000 bbl/day) processing capability

Set-up as centralized treatment plant


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MOBILE CHEMICAL TREATMENT - MCT


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MOBILE DISSOLVED AIR FLOTATION - MD


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NEXT-GENERATION HYBRID ITS-500

500 gpm(17,000bbl/day)

Combines chemical and physical treatment units

Moves from well to well for on-the-fly treatment

Standardized on Honeywell Instrumentation


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CHLORINE DIOXIDE (ClO2)

ClO2 is a powerful disinfectant that reacts rapidly via oxidation to provide effective micro-biocidal impact

It delivers broad spectrum performance against bacteria, fungi, algae, viruses, and parasitic microorganisms

In Oil & Gas, ClO2 reduces bio-fouling, oxidizes hydrogen sulfide and iron sulfide


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SULFATE REDUCING BACTERIA

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) produces hydrogen sulfide

Crude oil that contains hydrogen sulfide has reduced commercial value

Hydrogen sulfide makes the separation of water from oil less efficient, and ferrous sulfide precipitates can clog drilling and pumping equipment

SRB are the most potent contributors to the anaerobic corrosion of metal, which causes costly failures of equipment and pipelines

SRB

Sulfate

Sulfide


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TRADITIONAL vs. SMART WATER MANAGEMENT


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Traditional Water Management Strategy

Disposal Well

60,000bbl produced water is hauled away for disposal (460 truck loads)

Drilling Site

20,000bbl

Fresh water haulers truck 80,000bbl to the drilling site (615 truck loads)

Producing Well

Within the first few days of productivity 20,000bbl of flowback water is hauled to the disposal site (150 truck loads)

60,000bbl

Overall, 160,000bbl of water is hauled over 1,200 truck trips for one well

80,000bbl

Fresh Water


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Smart Water Management Strategy

X

Disposal Well

A mobile water recycling facility is introduced, eliminating the need for fresh water and disposal wells

20,000bbl

Recycling Facility

Drilling Site

80,000bbl

60,000bbl of produced water is hauled to the recycling facility

Producing Well

20,000bbl of flowback water is hauled from the new well pad to the recycling facility

60,000bbl

Water is treated and combined to make 80,000bbl of usable water

X

Recycling eliminates fresh water use and reduces truck movements

Fresh Water


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HYPOTHETICAL BUSINESS CASE

– FRESH WATER USE + DISPOSAL

Business Case


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HYPOTHETICAL BUSINESS CASE

– BRINE WATER RECYCLING & REUSE

Business Case


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RECYCLED BRINE WATER vs. FRESH WATER

Business Case

Fresh water cost per well:$364,000

Recycled water cost per well:$184,000

$364,000 - $184,000 =

$180,000 per well

Possible loss of productivity from use of fresh water: $200,000 per well

COMBINED BENEFITS OF USING TREATED BRINE WATER = $380,000 per well


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RECAP

Conclusion

  • By recycling frac water, fresh water can be left for other purposes

  • TSS removal is the key to reuse

  • Brine water prevents clay from swelling, resulting in higher well productivity

  • Water reuse eliminates 100s of truck loads per well

Proper water management vs. purchasing/transporting fresh water can result in $100,000’s of savings per well + increase well productivity + reduced truck traffic+ better stewardship of the environment + better community relationships


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WHERE WE OPERATE


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SOUTH TEXAS - EAGLE FORD

WHO: SM Energy (NYSE: SM)

WHAT: ITS-900 System

Processing 30,000bbl/day

WHERE: Carrizo Springs, Texas

WHEN: Summer 2013

WHY: Remove Oil, TSS, Iron and

Disinfect to prepare water for

reuse


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BRITISH COLUMBIA – MONTNEY REGION

WHAT: ITS-900 System

Processing 30,000bbl/day

WHERE: Dawson Creek, BC

WHEN: Summer 2013

WHY: Remove Oil and TSS in shale

frac water to prepare water

for reuse


And smart water management

QUESTIONS OR COMMENTS?

888-326-2020 | 678-514-2100

www.EcologixSystems.com

@EcologixSystems


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