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WORK AND RETIREMENT Freud: Love and work are necessary for happiness, health and adjustment

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WORK AND RETIREMENT Freud: Love and work are necessary for happiness, health and adjustment Sixty-two percent of all workers now in the labor force had no career plan when they started their first job.

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Freud: Love and work are necessary for happiness,

health and adjustment

  • Sixty-two percent of all workers now in the labor force had no career plan when they started their first job.
  • The majority of current college students do not have clearly defined career goals, as evidenced by widespread “major hopping”.
  • Most university graduates will not be working in jobs directly related to their majors five years after graduation.
  • The median duration of first-job holding among young adults is less than one year.
  • Young adults tend to stabilize in an occupation in their mid to late 20s, primarily because of financial or family obligations rather than because they have found an occupation they really like.
  • Sixty-four percent of workers in one survey stated that if they could start over, they would choose another career. Over 50 percent said that they ended up in their jobs either through the advice of others or by chance.
  • The majority of workers feel they could have been more satisfied and productive if they had known how to make better career decisions.
Age Differentiated Approach:
  • 18-30: Education
  • 30-65: Work
  • 65+: Retirement

Age Integrated Approach: All 3 for all 3

  • Education: More years for young due to technological advances
  • Need for “Work Breaks” – Work term programs very useful
  • Education Not Only for the Young:

Elderhostel Programs in N. America

Older Students in Universities


Continuing Education Programs: Life-Long


  • doctors, mechanics, university professors, civil servants, teachers, secretaries, lawyers, etc.

Continuing Education: Formal and Informal

Family influences on career choice
  • Aspiration level:
    • how high you reach correlates with SES (stronger for men)
  • Men: fathers to sons influence
    • low SES: obedience to and compliance with authority
    • high SES: initiative, independence
  • Women:
    • high SES: science
    • low SES: office work
    • if mom employed more likely to have career
    • if dad encouraging more likely to have career, post-secondary studies
Vocational Choice and Personality:

Holland – 6 Types:

  • Realistic: physical, aggressive, good motor coordination, not particularly verbal, prefers concrete problems, conventional values
  • Intellectual/Investigative: task-oriented, intraceptive, asocial, likes ambiguous tasks, unconventional values
  • Social: sociable, responsible, verbal and interpersonal skills, humanistic, feeling-oriented
  • Conventional: conformist, likes structured activities, needs structure, extraceptive, materialistic, identifies with power
  • Enterprising: verbal skills, extraceptive, ambiguous tasks, status, power and leadership
  • Artistic: intraceptive, asocial, emotional, individualistic, expressive
Most people mix of 2 or 3 types

Women mostly social, artistic, conventional

Stages in Career Development: Super

1. Crystallization: early adolescent (identity)

2. Specification: late adolescence, early adulthood (training)

3. Implementation: young adulthood, specific steps (trying out jobs)

4. Establishment: mid-20’s launch career path (selecting one occupation and staying)

Stages in Career Development: Super (Cont’d)

5. Consolidation: mid 30’s big push

6. Maintenance: mid 40’s (in reality, big push continues)

7. Deceleration: late 50’s (individual differences)

8. Retirement: 65


Ginzberg: more accurate today
  • Two patterns:
    • stable

shifting: women

economy swing


Raynor: type of career track:

    • Noncontingent: Low nACH (need for achievement)


    • Contingent: 1. Fixed steps: medium nACH

(careers) 2. Sky’s the limit: high nACH

Vocational Tests – Strong-Campbell

MUN Counselling Centre

Work and Gender:

Pre-industrial: home based, self-employed

Industrial era: men and women divergent paths


  • breadwinner role
  • aggressiveness
  • socialization: toys


fear of failure


  • homemaker, wife/mother roles
  • nurturant, supportive
  • socialization: toys

fear of success

Women’s Career Paths:
  • Most of the research on career development done with men
  • Women’s career paths differ significantly

Some of the reasons:

  • Males socialized to be instrumental, goal-oriented, achievement-oriented
  • Females socialized to be expressive, nurturing and dependent: relationship roles are central
  • As wives, women’s career is seen as secondary to the husband’s
Women’s Career Paths (Cont’d)
  • As mothers, women seen as primary caretakers, ultimately responsible
  • In general, when work/family conflict arises, men tend to put career first, women tend to put family first
  • The most demanding career-building years coincide with the most demanding childbearing and childrearing years
  • The type of work women do also results in radically different experiences: occupational segregation
  • Traditionally feminine work (secretary, school teacher, nurse, clerk): this is more socially approved, can be done on a part-time basis, lower paid, more adaptable to family demands
Women’s Career Paths (Cont’d)
  • Traditionally male-dominated work (engineering, finance, law, construction, economics, mathematics): women in these jobs are seen as selfish, manipulative, untrustworthy, hard to work with (Heilman et al., 2004). Affects their evaluations and career outcomes negatively.
  • Discontinuity: typically, women have many interruptions for childbearing and childrearing and for caring for older family members


  • slower advancement (or stalling), lower income, lower pension
  • seen as not serious about their work
Women’s Career Paths (Cont’d)
  • Women in science and engineering: few role models, androcentric subculture. Discrimination is subtle, but present (hiring and promotions). Need critical mass for change. Russia: 75% physicians, 50% engineers are women
  • Women’s management style: consensus, personal approach. Men’s: top down, more impersonal. Women mostly stuck at middle-management level
  • Burnout: feeling of loss of control, can’t cope, often depressed, illnesses, emotional outbursts, more common in “female” professions such as nursing, teaching, social work. Frustration, overload, little control over policy
Women’s Career Paths


    • hiring
    • salary
    • promotion
  • In general, women earn less than men even with higher educational levels and for the same or comparable work. (about 70 cents per dollar)
  • Biggest barrier: family/career conflict
Women’s Career Paths
  • For all these reasons, women are not promoted the same way as men, even if they perform better.
  • This has been called “the glass ceiling”, because it is not a readily visible type of discrimination, the way to the higher echelons looks clear, but most women bang their heads on the glass ceiling.
  • Some researchers have referred to a “stone floor” to which so many women are chained to, without rising even to the glass ceiling.
  • By contrast, men who leapfrog their way past more competent women are said to be riding the “glass elevator”.
80s and 90s:
  • small changes in men:
    • some increase in domestic participation
  • large changes in women:
    • large numbers in the workforce
    • entering traditionally male jobs
    • increased higher education
Motherhood and Career:

Some variables:

  • personality
  • socialization
  • level of energy, health
  • type of job
  • number of children
  • husband, family support
  • stay home: loss of power, money, benefits
  • part-time: marginalized plus the above
  • mommy track: ditto
  • full-time: poor child care, guilt, double shift
Some women don’t marry and/or don’t have


  • 90+% of men top management jobs are fathers
  • 60% of women in top management jobs are mothers

Androcentric career clock and work demands

assume a wife at home to take care of

everything else

A. Hochschild coined the term “double-shift”:

  • women do one work shift outside the home and one inside
Barriers for women:
  • Hiring practices
  • Promotion practices: glass ceiling or stone floor
  • No facilities in many male-dominated areas
  • Sexual harassment
  • Role conflict
  • Lack of mentors
  • “Queen Bee” syndrome
  • Socialization: fear of success (Horner), man’s work more important
  • Second shift or double shift
  • Salary: 70 cents for $1 earned by men for equivalent work and less qualifications

ex.: man with B.A. earns more than woman with M.A.

Dual Career Couples: increasingly common


  • mutual understanding
  • equality
  • bigger income
  • stimulating


  • time together – sex
  • chores
  • relocation
  • role conflict (women)
  • child care

Comparison with other industrialized countries:

Canada fares badly though better than U.S.

RETIREMENT: result of longer lifespan
  • Earlier: death ended working
  • Activity vs. disengagement
  • Many work into 80s and 90s: health, SES
  • Incentives for early retirement
  • downsizing
  • second career
  • partial retirement
  • volunteering
  • leisure
  • caring for grandkids or elderly parents or sick adult kids
retirement communities, “RV towns”

Disengagement likely when:

  • widowed
  • poor
  • loss of hearing, vision, mobility
  • disease
Planning for retirement:

In middle age (Havinghurst)

  • hobbies
  • second career
  • finances
  • health

Early retirement likely if:

  • financially OK and in good health
  • poor and sick
Retirement phases (Atchley)
  • Pre-retirement (Havinghurst)
  • Honeymoon
  • Disenchantment: can lead to re-entry to job market or due to health and money problems cause it
  • Reorientation
  • Stability
  • Termination: either through illness/death or reintegration to the work force
Newest issue in retirement:
  • Husbands and wives’ diverging paths, too much ‘togetherness’
  • Also, women usually younger than husbands, continue to work or re-start work after children grown up
  • Over 65s who can’t afford to retire: dependents, mismanagement of funds, unexpected catastrophes, etc.
Reines (professional retirement planner)
  • Stage 1. 55-70: active retirement, spend 70% of pre-retirement expenses. Travel if possible
  • Stage 2. stable: 70-85. Pattern of regular activities, e.g. bridge on Tuesdays, dancing on Fridays, golf on Mondays. Expectations lower, happy. Spend 50% of pre-retirement income
  • Stage 3: limited retirement: 85+. Major risks: loss of health and loss of income