Ethics and corruption in public service
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Ethics and Corruption in Public Service. CHALLENGES OF PUBLIC SERVICE. Large scale problems Transcend borders Stress limited resources Require knowledge and skill. Drug Trafficking. Terrorism. Human Trafficking. DOMESTIC AND TRANSNATIONAL. Provision of domestic public services

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Ethics and Corruption in Public Service

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Ethics and corruption in public service

Ethics and Corruption in Public Service


Challenges of public service

CHALLENGES OF PUBLIC SERVICE

Large scale problems

Transcend borders

Stress limited resources

Require knowledge and skill

Drug Trafficking

Terrorism

Human Trafficking


Domestic and transnational

DOMESTIC AND TRANSNATIONAL

Provision of domestic public services

Transnational challenges

Organized crime and terrorism

Poverty and disease

Environment and resources

Interconnectivity and technology


Stability and order

STABILITY AND ORDER

Regional conflicts

National insurrections

Rogue organizations

International response

Funding and manning issues

Human rights: order vs. individual / group freedoms


Ethics

ETHICS

Principles and values that guide public and private conduct

Personal, collective, professional, societal dimensions

Go beyond criminal law

Involved everyday in public administration and policy making


Military

MILITARY

Professional v. personal obligations

Administration of arms, supplies, equipment, and personnel

Command over subordinates

Control over missions

Darleen Druyun

Darleen Druyun

Darlene Druyun

Former Principal Deputy Undersecretary of the Air Force for Acquisition


Corruption

CORRUPTION

Abuse of entrusted power

Public or private actors

“According to the rule” or “against the rule”

Grand v. petty

Organized v. unorganized

Systemic v. localized

Political v. administrative

Linked to other criminal activities

Demonstrations in Kyrgyzstan


Corruption1

CORRUPTION

Can occur in any public context

Many forms:

Bribery, extortion, embezzlement

Kickbacks, self-dealing

Under-assessments

Coerced donations

Nepotism and cronyism

Ghost employees

“Grease” payments

Former U.S. Congressman Dan Rostenkowski


Perceptions of corruption

PERCEPTIONS OF CORRUPTION

Source: Transparency International Global Corruption Barometer 2010


Causes of corruption

CAUSES OF CORRUPTION


Dispelling myths

DISPELLING MYTHS

Poverty is not the same as corruption

Corruption is not a necessary characteristic of developing nations

Corruption does not result in efficiency


Corruption matters

CORRUPTION MATTERS

Distorts social, economic and political decisions

Diverts scarce resources

Suspends rule of law

Impedes skill development

Encourages deception

Discourages development and investment

Threatens democracy


Ethics and corruption in public service

DEVELOPMENT FUNDED SCHOOL


Ethics and corruption in public service

ACTUAL SCHOOL 500 FEET AWAY


Ethics and corruption in public service

ACTUAL USE OF FINANCED BUILDING


Reform

REFORM

High-level commitment?

Enforcement power?

Overcome entrenched resistance?

Coordination, specificity, and regular application?

Realistic promises and expectations?

More than textual changes?

Institutional mechanisms?


What type of corruption is this

What type of corruption is this?


And this

…and this?


Activities prone to corruption

ACTIVITIES PRONE TO CORRUPTION

  • Privatization

  • Large-scale public works projects

  • Defense spending

  • Revenue collection (customs)

  • Licensing and permitting


Sectors prone to bribery 0 high bribery 10 low bribery

Agriculture – 5.9

Light Manufacturing – 5.9

Fishery – 5.9

IT – 5.1

Forestry – 5.1

Civilian Aerospace – 4.9

Banking & Finance - 4.7

Heavy Manufacturing – 4.5

Pharmaceuticals/Medical Care – 4.3

Transportation/Storage – 4.3

Mining – 4.0

Power Generation/Transmission 3.7

Telecommunications – 3.7

Real Estate/Property – 3.7

Oil & Gas – 2.7

Arms & Defense – 1.9

Public Works & Construction – 1.3

Note: Respondents were asked, “Which are the sectors in your country of residence where senior public officials would be very likely, quite likely or unlikely to accept bribes? TI estimates the standard error to be 0.2 or less. Conducted by Gallop in 15 Emerging Market Countries.

Source: Transparency International’s Global Corruption Report 2003

SECTORS PRONE TO BRIBERY0 = High Bribery; 10 = Low Bribery


Causes of corruption institutional societal

CAUSES OF CORRUPTIONINSTITUTIONALSOCIETAL

POVERTY

& CONFLICT

WIDE

AUTHORITY

CORRUPTION

LITTLE

ACCOUNTABILITY

PERSONAL

LOYALTIES

ILLEGITIMATE

GOVERNMENT

PERVERSE

INCENTIVES


An illustration

AN ILLUSTRATION


An illustration continued

AN ILLUSTRATION CONTINUED


Conclusion

CONCLUSION

Anti-corruption efforts:

Foster culture of principled conduct

Create institutional mechanisms for prevention, detection and punishment


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